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Famines. Sources: The World Food Problem (2009, Leathers and Foster) World Hunger 12 Myths (1998, Lappe, Collins, and Rossett). Irish Potato Famine. 1845-1849 potato blight 1 million died of starvation 1.5 million emigrated Ireland a colony of England Exported wheat and beef to England

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famines

Famines

Sources:

The World Food Problem (2009, Leathers and Foster)

World Hunger 12 Myths (1998, Lappe, Collins, and Rossett)

irish potato famine
Irish Potato Famine
  • 1845-1849 potato blight
  • 1 million died of starvation
    • 1.5 million emigrated
  • Ireland a colony of England
    • Exported wheat and beef to England
    • Peasants had small plots of potatoes
  • Famine: wheat and beef still exported
    • Peasants did not own the land
    • Starved in the midst of plenty
      • They did not own
  • Europe also had blight but starvation only in Ireland
    • British policies

http://www.gormanfamilytree.com/images/famine2.jpg

slide3

British Army enforced food export during Irish potato famine

http://www.irishholocaust.org/1024-map.gif/1024-map-full.jpg

great famine india 1876 8
Great Famine, India 1876-8
  • India a British Colony
  • British policies:
    • Land converted to British plantations
    • Exports of crops to Europe
    • Taxed India to support British wars
    • Price of food rose
  • Drought decreased production
  • British response:
    • Inaction, discouraged famine relief
      • Thought to be too expensive
      • Thought relief would encourage shirking of Indian workers
  • Result: 5 million starved to death

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Famine_of_1876%E2%80%9378

http://www.sott.net/signs/images/indian_family.jpg

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Famine-in-India

colonial economic system
Colonial Economic System

Empire

Conquest

Wealth, Taxes

Food, Resources

Colonies

people most vulnerable to famine
People Most Vulnerable to Famine
  • Poor rural people: crop failure
    • Small scale farmers
    • Unemployed tenant farmers
    • Landless agriculture workers
    • Conquered nations
  • Pastoralists
    • Drought
    • Low animal prices

http://www.sonic.net/~evolve/wp/human_ecology/sudan_famine_7.jpg

bangladesh famine 1974
Bangladesh Famine, 1974
  • 100,000 died
  • Blamed on floods that destroyed crops
  • Actually never a shortage of food
  • Wealthy farmers hoarded food
  • Poor could not afford to buy food

http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/files/images/migrated/MultimediaFiles/Live/Image/4422.jpg

sub saharan africa sahel
Sub-Saharan Africa (Sahel)
  • Recurring Famines 70s, 80s
  • Blamed on Drought
    • But grow enough to feed everybody
  • Exports continued: cotton, vegetables, peanuts
  • Poor, indebted farmers suffer most
  • Desertification a problem
  • Aid supported export crops

http://filipspagnoli.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/famine.jpg

ethiopia
Ethiopia
  • Drought 1982-85:
    • 300,000 people died
  • Drought uneven:
    • affected only 30% of land
  • Civil War:
    • post-colonial problem
  • Government spent billions on military
    • incurred huge debt: encouraged cash crops
  • Government farms fed military
    • huge army reduced numbers of farm workers
  • 800,000 relocated

http://i.timeinc.net/time/magazine/archive/covers/1987/1101871221_400.jpg

rwanda
Rwanda
  • 1990s: Genocide, civil war, starving refugees
  • Country dependent on coffee exports:
    • prices dropped plunging economy into crisis
  • World Bank, IMF “structural adjustment”
  • doubled number in poverty
  • Rebels attacked most fertile region
  • Ethnic tensions left over from colonialism exploded
    • 500,000 killed: Genocide
  • Crop production dropped
    • economy collapsed

Rwanda refugees

http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0fel9bt89f5XY/610x.jpg

slide12

http://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gifhttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

sudan
Sudan
  • Rebellion in Darfur starting 2003
    • Region size of France
  • Farming villages bombed
    • by Sudan government
    • To fight rebels
  • Ethnic cleansing
    • by Pro-Arab militia (Janjaweed)
      • kill, rape, burn
    • Genocide?
  • 2.5 million refugees
    • 200,000- 450,000 dead
      • Many from starvation

Refugees in Darfur, Sudan

http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/sudan_genocide_genocide_in_sudan.php

conflicts and poverty
Conflicts and Poverty

http://www.cybertext.net.au/student07_inet__may/otherConferences/Poverty_conflict_map.jpg

famines are a social disaster
Famines are a Social Disaster
  • Vulnerability of the poor
    • Disasters result in poor losing land
      • Opportunity for the rich?
  • Claim to food may be lost
    • If too poor to buy food
    • Right to food?
  • Vulnerability of agriculture to nature
    • Poor conservation due to economic pressure
  • Hunger used as a weapon

Ethiopia 1980

http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/images/nwaz_02_img0201.jpg

ukraine famine
Ukraine Famine
  • Policy: Soviet Union established collective farms in 1930s
  • Policy: Quotas set for farm production
  • Policy: Food seized from farms to make quotas
  • 6-8 million Ukrainians died 1932-1933

http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/Image14.jpg

great leap forward famine 1959 1961
Great Leap Forward Famine1959-1961
  • Policy & Ideology: China reorganized farms into large communes
    • Huge production predicted
  • Policy: Food exports increased in 1959
    • Based on predictions
  • Poor weather resulted in low production
  • 30 million people died

Propaganda Poster

http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/ChinaLinks-New/Images-ChinaLinks1-07/glf.jpg

great leap forward famine
Great Leap Forward Famine

Government

Totalitarian

Economy

Ideology

Collective Farms

Communism

north korean famine
North Korean Famine
  • 1990s – 500,000 - 3Million died of starvation
    • N. Korea doesn’t grow enough food for it’s population
    • Food rationed by government
    • Priority to military and party loyalists
    • With collapse of Soviet Union, grain aid reduced in 1990s
    • Industrial base too weak to afford grain imports
    • Military:
      • 1.2 million soldiers
      • ¼ N. Korean budget

http://www.nkfreedom.org/fileadmin/Image_Archive/Photo_2girls.jpg

disaster relief needs
Disaster Relief Needs
  • Better governance:
    • democracy
  • Early warning
    • rapid response
  • Increase food availability
    • Discourage hoarding
    • Domestic production
  • Distribution to needy
    • Food or cash
  • Stabilization of food prices

Liberia refugee children

http://www.americanphotojournalist.com/News/145-8.jpg