Communicating the results of an investigation
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Communicating the results of an investigation. Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) district surveillance officers (DSO) course. Outline of the session. Audience Behavioural objectives Communication strategy Short slide presentations. Key principles of communication.

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Communicating the results of an investigation

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Communicating the results of an investigation

Communicating the results of an investigation

Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) district surveillance officers (DSO) course


Outline of the session

Outline of the session

  • Audience

  • Behavioural objectives

  • Communication strategy

  • Short slide presentations

2


Key principles of communication

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

3


Key principles of communication1

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

4

Audience


Audiences that may benefit from receiving information about an outbreak

Audiences that may benefit from receiving information about an outbreak

  • Epidemiologists

  • Laboratory specialists

  • Public health managers

  • Political leaders

  • Community

  • Scientific community

  • Others…

5

Audience


Selecting the audience

Selecting the audience

  • What needs to be done for this outbreak

  • Who needs to be engaged so that these actions are taken

6

Audience


Audiences to engage in the case of two different outbreak scenarios

Audiences to engage in the case of two different outbreak scenarios

  • Local food poisoning

    • The community

    • The food handlers

    • The public health department

  • Avian influenza

    • Multiple audiences among professionals and the broader community

7

Audience


Key principles of communication2

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

8

Audience


Seek first to understand then to be understood

Seek first to understand, then to be understood

  • The audience has a personal appreciation on the situation

    • What are the risks ?

    • What are the opportunities ?

  • Engaging the audience from the angle of the concern they have will increase the effectiveness of communication

9

Audience


Potential concerns among various audiences in the case of an avian influenza outbreak

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Potential concerns among various audiences in the case of an avian influenza outbreak

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10

Audience


Key principles of communication3

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

11

Behaviours


Communication for behavioural outcomes

Communication for behavioural outcomes

  • Communication has a purpose

    • Getting the audience to engage in a specific behaviour

  • The purpose needs to be clear

    • Identify the behaviour you would like from your audience

  • The expected behaviour guides the communication strategy

12

Behaviours


Examples of behaviours that may be expected from specific audiences

Examples of behaviours that may be expected from specific audiences

  • Population

    • Engage in safer practices

  • Public health managers

    • Implement prevention measures

  • Political leaders

    • Support prevention measures with funds

13

Behaviours


Key principles of communication4

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

14

Strategy


Choosing the media

Choosing the media

  • Reach the audience through adapted media

  • Examples:

    • Decision maker

      • Briefing note

    • Population

      • Mass media

    • Nurses / doctors

      • Article in a professional bulletin

15

Strategy


Key principles of communication5

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

16

Strategy


Communication tone

Communication tone

  • Use a tone that will create trust with the audience

    • Epidemiologists: Scientific

    • Decision makers: Managerial

    • Population: Empathic

  • Pilot test communication tools with audience

    • Pilot test with a sample of the audience

    • Revised according to feedback, response

17

Strategy


Key principles of communication6

Key principles of communication

  • Define the audience

  • Understand the concern of the audience

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

  • Select the right media

  • Find the right tone

  • Adapt the content (e.g., language)

18

Strategy


Communication messages

Communication messages

  • Designed to achieve the behavioural objective

  • Adapted to the audience

  • Can be designed to trigger inter-personal communication channels

    • “Ask your health care worker if your child is fully protected against measles”

19

Strategy


Overall example communicating the results of an outbreak investigation with a district collector

Overall example: Communicating the results of an outbreak investigation with a district collector

  • Define the audience

    • Public administrator

  • Understand the concern of the audience

    • The public needs to be protected and the situation brought under controls

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

    • Provide support for control measures

  • Select the right media

    • Briefing note

  • Find the right tone

    • Managerial, big picture, factual

  • Adapt the content

    • Facts, figures and recommendations

20

Strategy


Communicating the results of an investigation

Exercise: How would you communicate the results of an outbreak investigation with the state surveillance unit

  • Define the audience

    • ?

  • Understand the concern of the audience

    • ?

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

    • ?

  • Select the right media

    • ?

  • Find the right tone

    • ?

  • Adapt the content

    • ?

21

Strategy


Communicating the results of an investigation

Getting across a Single Overriding Communication Objective (SOCO) during an oral presentation with slides

  • Your audience may be subject to information overload

  • The absorption capacity is limited

  • Think of ONE take-home message:

    • Single Overriding Communication Objective (SOCO)

  • Write down your SOCO in two or three lines

SOCO for oral presentations

22


Example of a good soco

Example of a good SOCO

“The cholera outbreak that occurred in city X in October 2003 was caused by a sewage back-flow into the municipal water system. It could have been prevented through appropriate public engineering.”

SOCO for oral presentations

23


The good soco

The good SOCO

  • Is easy to remember

    • Clear, simple, practical

  • Is an invisible blueprint of the presentation

  • Gets the audience ready for action:

    • This outbreak was caused by bad sanitation I want to make sure that the one is my state is OK

    • I will check with my sanitation people

  • Anything that is not necessary to support the SOCO should be cut from the presentation

SOCO for oral presentations

24


Prepare easy to read slides one per minute

Prepare easy to read slides, one per minute

  • Use font number 20 as an absolute minimum

  • Prefer fonts without serifs (e.g., “Arial”)

  • Use lower case that are easy to read

  • Ensure maximum text / background contrast

  • Have less than 7 lines per slide

SOCO for oral presentations

25


Readability is essential for each member of the audience whatever the seat

Readability is essential for each member of the audience, whatever the seat

  • Font below number 20 are unreadable

  • “Serifs” (e.g., “Times Roman”)

    • Are adapted to small prints in book

    • Are more difficult to read on a slide that is projected

  • CAPITAL LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO READ AND AGGRESSIVE

  • Poor contrast is unpleasant and difficult to read

    DO YOU GET MY POINTS?

    Or is this difficult to follow?

SOCO for oral presentations

26


Using socos with journalists

Using SOCOs with journalists

  • Prepare a SOCO

  • Stick to the SOCO

  • If asked any question

    • “Bridge” and find a way to get back to the SOCO

  • Use of a SOCO allows you to keep control of an interview

    • You will not be caught on something you did not say

SOCO for oral presentations

27


Exercise a measles outbreak in a large city

Exercise: A measles outbreak in a large city

  • A large metro city is affected by a large measles outbreak

  • The key determinant of the outbreak is a low measles coverage (47%)

  • Case fatality is high because children do not present for care and do not use vitamin A

SOCO for oral presentations

28


Preparing an interview with the press

Preparing an interview with the press

  • Your supervisor ask you to give an interview with the local radio about this outbreak

  • Prepare your interview:

    • Who is your audience?

    • What is the concern of the audience?

    • What do you expect from the audience?

    • What media should you use?

    • What tone is right?

    • What is the content? (Write a SOCO)

SOCO for oral presentations

29


Take home messages

Take home messages

  • Communication WITH and not TO the audience

  • Keep in mind what is needed out of people

  • Pilot test communication material

  • Have your oral presentations guided by a clear SOCO

30


Measles outbreak exercise results

Measles outbreak exercise results

  • Define the audience

    • Audio visual press

  • Understand the concern of the audience

    • The press may want to finger point to create a story

  • Frame what you expect from the audience

    • Children must get vaccinated and cases must receive vit A

  • Select the right media

    • Interview with SOCO

  • Find the right tone

    • Sympathetic

  • SOCO:

    • You can protect your child during this outbreak! Make sure s/he is vaccinated for measles and if sick, make sure s/he receives vitamin A in the health centre

31

Strategy


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