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The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1956. Case Study. Rosa Parks. Enquiry Questions. What were the causes and consequences of the MBB? How important was the MBB in the history of the civil rights movement? How did MBB help to make Martin Luther King Junior a national figure?

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Enquiry questions
Enquiry Questions

  • What were the causes and consequences of the MBB?

  • How important was the MBB in the history of the civil rights movement?

  • How did MBB help to make Martin Luther King Junior a national figure?

  • Why did Rosa Park’s refusal to give up her bus seat spark a national controversy?


The amendments
The Amendments

  • 14th Amend: “nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

  • 15th Amend: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”


Segregated united states
Segregated United States

  • Plessy v. Ferguson: 1896 Supreme Court ruled “separate but equal” did not violate 14th Amendment

  • Reinforced that blacks were inferior


Brown v board of ed topeka
Brown v. Board of Ed. - Topeka

  • Linda Brown went to run down black school 21 blocks away when there was a white school 4 blocks

  • 1954 The US Supreme Court over turned Plessy v. Ferguson, ending the era of “separate, but equal”


Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • Montgomery is the capital state of Alabama

  • 1950’s: one of the most racially segregated states

  • 70,000 white people 50,000 black

  • Jim Crow laws continued to enforce segregation in schools, transport, libraries and other public facilites




  • 1952: white woman in Montgomery accused a teenage black boy, JeremiahReeves of rape

  • Tried/convicted of rape by all-white jury

  • NAACP appealed, however Reeves was executed

  • Angered black people in Mont

  • Many black women had been murdered by white men


  • None convicted

  • Seen as an example of legal double standards

  • Many people thus thought that justice system in Mont discriminated agst. blacks



  • 1955: an event involving segregation on the city’s buses was the starting point of the first organised mass movement of Black American’s in 20th century America


Segregation on the buses
Segregation on the buses

  • Montgomery Law:

  • Black people sitting on buses could not sit at the front, even if the seats were unoccupied

  • First four rows reserved for whites

  • If there were no seats for the whites the blacks had to give up their seat

  • If a white person sat beside a black person, the black person had to stand


  • ALL bus drivers were white

  • Yet, 70% of those who used the bus were black

  • Drivers often humiliated/harassed the blacks

  • Called them ‘nigger’ or ‘ape’

  • Women in particular were singled out for abuse




  • Mary Louise Smith


  • Arrested/fined imprisoned

  • Mood of black citizens becoming increasingly angry with segregation policies


Interview with colvin
Interview with Colvin imprisoned

www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_rparks.htm


Questions
Questions imprisoned

  • Comprehension:

  • In source C who are ‘our people’?

  • List three of the most urgent needs of our people.

  • Which needs are (i) political (ii) social or (iii) economic

  • Why do they want to know ‘What is your stand on these issues?’


5. How are passenger seats assigned in Montgomery, Source B? imprisoned

6. Who was responsible for separating white and black people on the bus?

7. What powers did the bus driver have?


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