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Technician Licensing Class “T6”. Presented by the Opp Amateur Radio Club Opp, AL Saturday, October 11, 2014. Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2. ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS T1 - FCC Rules, station license responsibilities T2 - Control operator duties T3 - Operating practices

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Technician licensing class t6

Technician Licensing Class“T6”

Presented by the

Opp Amateur Radio Club

Opp, AL

Saturday, October 11, 2014


Amateur radio technician class element 2

Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2

ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS

  • T1 - FCC Rules, station license responsibilities

  • T2 - Control operator duties

  • T3 - Operating practices

  • T4 - Radio and electronic fundamentals

  • T5 - Station setup and operation

  • T6 - Communications modes and methods

  • T7 - Special operations

  • T8 - Emergency and Public Service Communications

  • T9 - Radio waves, propagation, and antennas

  • T0 - Electrical and RF Safety


Communications modes and methods t6a

Communications modes and methods T6A

  • Modulation modes, descriptions and bandwidth (AM, FM, SSB)

An amateur radio station used to connect other amateur radio stations to the internet is called a gateway.

PC User

Internet

Gateway

Gateway

Repeater

Repeater


Communications modes and methods t6a1

Communications modes and methods T6A

  • Modulation modes, descriptions and bandwidth (AM, FM, SSB)(cont)

  • Phone transmissions are voice transmissions by radio.

  • Single sideband (SSB) is a form of amplitude modulation.


Amplitude modulation

Amplitude Modulation

An unmodulated RF

carrier requires narrow

Bandwidth

(on and off is CW)

Modulation of the carrier

creates sidebands. This

requires more bandwidth.

Transmitter power is spread across this bandwidth


Am and ssb

AM and SSB

The carrier contains no

audio information.

The sidebands contain

duplicate audio information

By filtering out the carrier and one sideband, we save spectrum and concentrate our RF energy into a narrower bandwidth. SSB is therefore more efficient.


Communications modes and methods t6a2

Communications modes and methods T6A

  • Modulation modes, descriptions and bandwidth (AM, FM, SSB) (cont)

    • Upper sideband is normally used for VHF and UHF SSB communications.

    • The primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions is that SSB signals use much less bandwidth than FM signals.


Communications modes and methods t6a3

Communications modes and methods T6A

  • Modulation modes, descriptions and bandwidth (AM, FM, SSB)(cont)

  • Single sideband (SSB) voice modulation is most often used for long distance and weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands.

  • Frequency Modulation (FM) is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters.

  • The emission type, CW, has the narrowest bandwidth


Technician licensing class t6

SSB Signal 2 - 3 kHz wide

FM Signal 5 - 15 kHz wide

UHF Fast-Scan TV ~ 6 MHz

Bandwidth T6A


Communications modes and methods t6a4

Communications modes and methodsT6A

  • Modulation modes, descriptions and bandwidth (AM, FM, SSB)(cont)

  • The approximate bandwidth of a single-sideband voice signal is between 2 and 3 kHz.

  • The approximate bandwidth of a frequency-modulated voice signal is between 5 and 15 kHz.

  • The normal bandwidth required for a conventional fast-scan TV transmission using combined video and audio on the 70-centimeter band is about 6 MHz.


Communications modes and methods t6b

Communications modes and methodsT6B

  • Voice communications, EchoLink and IRLP

    • Information is transmitted between stations via the Internet using Echolink.

    • EchoLink allows computer-to-radio linking for voice transmission.

    • Any licensed amateur radio operator may operate on the Echolink system.


Echolink model

Echolink model


Echolink screen shot

Echolink screen shot


Communications modes and methods t6b1

Communications modes and methodsT6B

  • Voice communications, EchoLink and IRLP(cont)

    • If you hear a brief tone and then a station from Russia calling CQ on a 2-meter repeater you are listening to an Internet linked DX station.

    • Voice over Internet Protocol is the method used to transfer data by IRLP.

    • IRLP is a method of linking between two or more amateur stations using the Internet.


Communications modes and methods t6b2

Communications modes and methodsT6B

  • Voice communications, EchoLink and IRLP(cont)

  • You might find a list of active nodes using VoIP in a repeater directory or the Internet.

  • When using a portable transceiver you select a specific IRLP node by using the keypad to transmit the IRLP node numbers.

  • Echolink and IRLP have in common: Voice over Internet Protocol technology.


A typical irlp node

A typical IRLP Node


Communications modes and methods t6c

Communications modes and methodsT6C

  • Packet Radio is an example of a digital communications method.

  • Point-to-point digital message forwarding emission mode may be used by a Technician class operator in the 219 - 220 MHz frequency range.

  • Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

  • PSK31 is a low-rate data transmission mode that works well in noisy conditions.

Non-voice communications - image communications, data, CW, packet, PSK31, Morse code techniques, Q signals


Communications modes and methods t6c1

Communications modes and methodsT6C

  • Non-voice communications - image communications, data, CW, packet, PSK31, Morse code techniques, Q signals(cont)

    • Automatic Position Reporting System (APRS)

    • A global positioning system receiver is required along with your normal radio for sending automatic location reports.

    • A standard fast scan color television signal transmission is indicated by the term NTSC.


Communications modes and methods t6c2

Communications modes and methodsT6C

  • Non-voice communications - image communications, data, CW, packet, PSK31, Morse code techniques, Q signals(cont)

    • Any sending speed at which you can reliably receive is recommended when using Morse code.

    • A practical reason for being able to copy CW when using repeaters is to recognize a repeater ID sent in Morse code.


Communications modes and methods t6c3

Communications modes and methodsT6C

  • Non-voice communications - image communications, data, CW, packet, PSK31, Morse code techniques, Q signals(cont)

    • QRM is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations.

    • QSY is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency.


Q signals

Q-Signals

Something is causing interference

I am troubled by static/noise.

I am running low power.

I am going off the air.

Who is calling me?

Your signal is fading.

I received the message.

I will communicate with ________ directly.

I am changing frequency to _____.

My location is _______.

QRM

QRN

QRP

QRT

QRZ

QSB

QSL

QSO

QSY

QTH


Take aways

Take Aways

  • Connect radio stations to the Internet…Gateway

  • Phone is voice transmission

  • SSB a form of AM

  • USB normally used for VHF & UHF SSB

  • SSB advantage over FM…less bandwidth

  • SSB used for long distance and weak signal contacts on VHF/UHF


Take aways cont

Take Aways (cont)

  • FM most common on VHF/UHF repeaters

  • CW has narrowest bandwidth

  • Bandwidth of SSB… 2-3 kHz

  • Bandwidth of FM…5-15 kHz

  • Bandwidth of Fast-scan TV on 70-centimeter

    • … 6 mHz


Take aways cont1

Take Aways(cont)

  • Echolink uses the Internet

  • Echolink allows computer-to-radio linking for voice

  • Any licensed amateur can use Echolink

  • Echolink & IRLP have VoIP in common

  • Hear a tone and CQ on 2-meter repeater…

    • Internet linked DX station


Take aways cont2

Take Aways(cont)

  • VoIP method for data transfer by IRLP

  • IRLP links two or more stations using the Internet

  • Active nodes using VoIP listed in repeater directory or on Internet

  • Select IRLP node with keypad

  • Standard fast color TV…NTSC


Take aways cont3

Take Aways(cont)

  • Packet Radio is digital communications

  • 219-220 mHz for Point-to-point digital message forwarding

  • PSK … Phase Shift Keying

  • PSK31 low-rate data mode that works well in noisy conditions


Take aways cont4

Take Aways(cont)

  • APRS … Automatic Position Reporting System

  • A GPS receiver needed for APRS

  • Send at speed you can reliably receive

  • Copy CW to recognize ID sent in Morse code

  • QRM … receiving interference

  • QSY … Change frequency


Element 2 technician class question pool t6

Element 2 Technician Class Question PoolT6

Valid July 1, 2006

Through

June 30, 2010


T6a01 what are phone transmissions

T6A01 What are phone transmissions?

  • The use of telephones to set up an amateur radio contact

  • A phone patch between amateur radio and the telephone system

  • Voice transmissions by radio

  • Placing the telephone handset near a radio transceiver's microphone and speaker to relay a telephone call


T6a02 which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation

T6A02 Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation?

  • Frequency modulation

  • Phase modulation

  • Single sideband

  • Phase shift keying


Technician licensing class t6

T6A03 What name is given to an amateur radio station that is used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet?

  • A gateway

  • A repeater

  • A digipeater

  • A beacon station


Technician licensing class t6

T6A04 Which type of voice modulation is most often used for long distance and weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands?

  • FM

  • AM

  • SSB

  • PM


T6a05 which type of modulation is most commonly used for vhf and uhf voice repeaters

T6A05Which type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters?

  • AM

  • SSB

  • PSK

  • FM


T6a06 which emission type has the narrowest bandwidth

T6A06 Which emission type has the narrowest bandwidth?

  • FM voice

  • SSB voice

  • CW

  • Slow-scan TV


T6a07 which sideband is normally used for vhf and uhf ssb communications

T6A07 Which sideband is normally used for VHF and UHF SSB communications?

  • Upper sideband

  • Lower sideband

  • Suppressed sideband

  • Inverted sideband


T6a08 what is the primary advantage of single sideband over fm for voice transmissions

T6A08 What is the primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions?

  • SSB signals are easier to tune in than FM signals

  • SSB signals are less likely to be bothered by noise interference than FM signals.

  • SSB signals use much less bandwidth than FM signals

  • SSB signals have no advantages at all in comparison to other modes.


T6a09 what is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal

T6A09 What is the approximate bandwidth of a single-sideband voice signal?

  • 1 kHz

  • 2 kHz

  • Between 3 and 6 kHz

  • Between 2 and 3 kHz


T6a10 what is the approximate bandwidth of a frequency modulated voice signal

T6A10 What is the approximate bandwidth of a frequency-modulated voice signal?

  • Less than 500 Hz

  • About 150 kHz

  • Between 5 and 15 kHz

  • More than 30 kHz


Technician licensing class t6

T6A11What is the normal bandwidth required for a conventional fast-scan TV transmission using combined video and audio on the 70-centimeter band?

  • More than 10 MHz

  • About 6 MHz

  • About 3 MHz

  • About 1 MHz


T6b01 how is information transmitted between stations using echolink

T6B01 How is information transmitted between stations using Echolink?

  • APRS

  • PSK31

  • Internet

  • Atmospheric ducting


T6b02 what does the abbreviation irlp mean

T6B02 What does the abbreviation IRLP mean?

  • Internet Radio Linking Project

  • Internet Relay Language Protocol

  • International Repeater Linking Project

  • International Radio Linking Project


T6b03 who may operate on the echolink system

T6B03 Who may operate on the Echolink system?

  • Only club stations

  • Any licensed amateur radio operator

  • Technician class licensed amateur radio operators only

  • Any person, licensed or not, who is registered with the Echolink system


T6b04 what technology do echolink and irlp have in common

T6B04 What technology do Echolink and IRLP have in common?

  • Voice over Internet protocol

  • Ionospheric propagation

  • AC power lines

  • PSK31


T6b05 what method is used to transfer data by irlp

T6B05 What method is used to transfer data by IRLP?

  • VHF Packet radio

  • PSK31

  • Voice over Internet protocol

  • None of these answers are correct


T6b06 what does the term irlp describe

T6B06 What does the term IRLP describe?

  • A method of encrypting data

  • A method of linking between two or more amateur stations using the Internet

  • A low powered radio using infra-red frequencies

  • An international logging program.


T6b07 which one of the following allows computer to radio linking for voice transmission

T6B07 Which one of the following allows computer-to-radio linking for voice transmission?

  • Grid modulation

  • EchoLink

  • AMTOR

  • Multiplex


Technician licensing class t6

T6B08What are you listening to if you hear a brief tone and then a station from Russia calling CQ on a 2-meter repeater?

  • An ionospheric band opening on VHF

  • A prohibited transmission

  • An Internet linked DX station

  • None of these answers are correct


T6b10 where might you find a list of active nodes using voip

T6B10 Where might you find a list of active nodes using VoIP?

  • The FCC Rulebook

  • From your local emergency coordinator

  • A repeater directory or the Internet

  • The local repeater frequency coordinator


T6b11 when using a portable transceiver how do you select a specific irlp node

T6B11 When using a portable transceiver how do you select a specific IRLP node?

  • Choose a specific CTCSS tone

  • Choose the correct DSC tone

  • Access the repeater autopatch

  • Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node numbers


T6c01 which of the following is an example of a digital communications method

T6C01 Which of the following is an example of a digital communications method?

  • Single sideband voice

  • Amateur television

  • FM voice

  • Packet radio


T6c02 what does the term aprs mean

T6C02 What does the term APRS mean?

  • Automatic Position Reporting System

  • Associated Public Radio Station

  • Auto Planning Radio Set-up

  • Advanced Polar Radio System


T6c03 what item is required along with your normal radio for sending automatic location reports

T6C03 What item is required along with your normal radio for sending automatic location reports?

  • A connection to the vehicle speedometer

  • A connection to a WWV receiver

  • A connection to a broadcast FM sub-carrier receiver

  • A global positioning system receiver


T6c04 what type of transmission is indicated by the term ntsc

T6C04 What type of transmission is indicated by the term NTSC?

  • A Normal Transmission mode in Static Circuit

  • A special mode for earth satellite uplink

  • A standard fast scan color television signal

  • A frame compression scheme for TV signal


Technician licensing class t6

T6C05 What emission mode may be used by a Technician class operator in the 219 - 220 MHz frequency range?

  • Slow-scan television

  • Point-to-point digital message forwarding

  • FM voice

  • Fast-scan television


T6c06 what does the abbreviation psk mean

T6C06 What does the abbreviation PSK mean?

  • Pulse Shift Keying

  • Phase Shift Keying

  • Packet Short Keying

  • Phased Slide Keying


T6c07 what is psk31

T6C07 What is PSK31?

  • A high-rate data transmission mode used to transmit files

  • A method of reducing noise interference to FM signals

  • A type of television signal

  • A low-rate data transmission mode that works well in noisy conditions


T6c08 what sending speed is recommended when using morse code

T6C08 What sending speed is recommended when using Morse code?

  • Only speeds below five WPM

  • The highest speed your keyer will operate

  • Any speed at which you can reliably receive

  • The highest speed at which you can control the keyer


T6c09 what is a practical reason for being able to copy cw when using repeaters

T6C09 What is a practical reason for being able to copy CW when using repeaters?

  • To send and receive messages others cannot overhear

  • To conform with FCC licensing requirements

  • To decode packet radio transmissions

  • To recognize a repeater ID sent in Morse code


T6c10 what is the q signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations

T6C10 What is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations?

  • QRM

  • QRN

  • QTH

  • QSB


T6c11 what is the q signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency

T6C11 What is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency?

  • QRU

  • QSY

  • QSL

  • QRZ


Practice exams on the internet

Practice exams on the Internet

  • HTTP://www.QRZ.Com/p/testing.pl

  • HTTP://www.W8MHB.Com/Exam

  • HTTP://www.AA9PW.Com/Radio


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