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WHITHER EUROPEAN SCIENCE?. NORBERT KROÓ HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES BUDAPEST,04.02.2005. EUROPEAN UNION. GROWING SIGNIFICANCE OF KNOWLEDGE RADICAL (GLOBAL, NATIONAL, REGIONAL) CHANGES KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY (ECONOMY)

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Whither european science

WHITHER EUROPEAN SCIENCE?

NORBERT KROÓ

HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

BUDAPEST,04.02.2005


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

GROWING SIGNIFICANCE OF KNOWLEDGE

RADICAL (GLOBAL, NATIONAL, REGIONAL) CHANGES

KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY (ECONOMY)

RESOURCES (LABOUR, MATERIALS, ENERGY, CAPITAL,

KNOWLEDGE)

NEW PRACTICES IN RESEARCH x

NEW PRIORITIES x

DRYING OUT TECHNOLOGIES

NEW IDEAS--- RESEARCH

NEW POTENTIAL REVOLUTIONS (BIO-, NANO-, INFO- )

GLOBALIZATION

SUSPICIOUS SOCIETY


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION


Science is changing 1

SCIENCE IS CHANGING (1).

* THE COMPLEXITY OF KNOWLEDGE INCREASES DEEPER KNOWLEDGE IN MORE NARROW FIELDS

* INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH EXPANDS

(COMPLEX PROBLEMS)

* THE COST OF RESEARCH (INFRASTRUCTURE) SKY-

ROCKETS. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT NEEDED

* INCREASING CRITICAL SIZE. NETWORKING.

(BOTH FINANCIALLY AND IN HUMAN POTENTIAL)

* STONGER INFLUENCE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF

THE ECONOMY.


Science is changing 2

SCIENCE IS CHANGING (2).

* NEW WAYS OF DOING SCIENCE: „KNOWLEDGE BORN IN CYBERSPACE” TROUGH THE INTERACTION OF DISLOCATED SCIENTISTS

* DEVELOPMENT COSTS BEYOND THE POSSIBILITIES OF COMPANIES  REQUEST FOR STATE INTERVENTION, COMPANY CONSORTIA

* SCIENCE HAS BECOME FULLY INTERNATIONAL, GLOBALIZATION.


Whither european science

THE KNOWLEDGE PARADOX

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SCIENCE INCREASES (1) AND THE

INTEREST OF THE YOUNG GENERATION DECREASES (2)

AD 1. MULTIDISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE

INTERACTION WITH THE ECONOMY

SHORTER AND NONLINEAR INNOVATION CHAIN

KNOWLEDGE AS ECONOMICAL DRIVING FORCE

SIGNIFICANT SHARE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

SKILLS APPLICABLE IN OTHER AREAS

AD 2. HARD WORK WITH MODEST FINANTIAL REWARDS

MANY OTHER CAREER PATHS

„PROBLEMLESS” CURRICULI IN HIGH SCHOOLS


Society is changing

SOCIETY IS CHANGING

* RESPECT FOR SCIENCE VARYING (HIGH EXPECTATIONS BUT ALSO DISCONTENT)

* GROWING PUBLIC CONCERN ON THE POSSIBLE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF SCIENCE (RADIOACTIVE WASTE, CHEMICAL POLLUTION, IMPROPERLY TESTED MEDICINES, BIOTECHNOLOGY, ETC.)

* AWARENESS OF THE SOCIETY ON PUBLIC SPENDING

* THREAT OF „INSTANT SCIENCE” DUE TO MEDIA AND OTHER INTEREST


Governance is changing

GOVERNANCE IS CHANGING

  • IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON GDP INCREASES

  • MILITARY RESEARCH SRINKS ( SECURITY RES.?)

  • CONFLICT BETWEEN RESOURCES AND FUNDING NEEDS

  • NEW ROLES OF NATIONAL / INERNATIONAL (EU) GOVERNANCE


Whither european science

CHANGING EUROPEAN

LANDSCAPE

* EUROPEAN RESEARCH COUNCIL

* EXPECTED DOUBLING OF THE R&D BUDGET OF THE EU

* THE NEW APPROACHES IN FP7

* THE 3% ISSUE

* THE IMPACT OF THE ENLARGEMENT PROCESS

* LARGE NUMBER OF EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS ON

THE SCENE (DRIVE FOR ADVISORY ROLE, ETC.)

NEEDED TO FOLLOW THESE RECENT CHANGES


Whither european science

SCIENCE POLICY ISSUES

* BASIC VS. APPLIED RESEARCH (US VS. EU PRACTICES)

* QUALITY AND EVALUATION

NOT OF THE WORK OF INDIVIDUAL SCIENTISTS

TO EXPLORE THE ACTIVITY OF EXISTING EUR. BODIES

* EUROPEAN PERFORMANCE (?!)

PUBLICATIONS, CITATIONS, GATEKEEPING

WEALTH CREATION


Whither european science

EUROPEAN PRESENCE IN PUBLICATIONS


Whither european science

PATENT INDICATORS


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

THE NEAR PAST

INNOVATION PARADOX. SCIENCE POLICIES NOT IN HARMONY

LOW SPENDING ON R&D

FRAMEWORK PROGRAMMES x

ERA (HARMONIZED SCIENCE POLICY AND INFRASTRUC-

TURE, MOBILITY, FINANCES, ARTICLE 169, NETWORK

OF CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE, …) STRUCT. FUNDS!

LISBON (KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY – ERA)

BARCELONA (3%).

INFORMATION SOCIETY PROGRAMMES


Whither european science

FP6

PRIORITY FIELDS


Whither european science

R&D RECOGNIZED AS A KEY TO COMPE-

TITIVENESS AND NEW (HIGH TECH.) JOBS

INCREASED RESEARCH POTENTIAL NEEDED

HUMAN CAPITAL (700,000 NEW RESEARCH POSITIONS)

PROPER INFRASTRUCTURE AND INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

STRONG (BASIC) RESEARCH BASE

ERC (excellence – competition on European level)

HIGHER R&D SPENDING

IMPROVED ACADEMIA - INDUSTRY RELATIONS

BETTER SCIENCE - SOCIETY RELATIONS


Whither european science

BASIC RESEARCH (1)

WHY BASIC RESEARCH?

EXCITING VENTURE

DRYING OUT TECHNOLOGIES. NEED FOR NEW IDEAS

(to a large extent from basic research)

MAIN PILLAR OF (ELITE) EDUCATION

DEVELOPS INSTRUMENTS (for applied research, for

industry and for designing the development path of

societies)

HIGHEST LEVEL OF DEMAND FOR INDUSTRY


Whither european science

BASIC RESEARCH (2)

HOW?

NONLINEAR INNOVATION CHAIN 

MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 

(BASIC RESEARCH SHOULD BE IN HARMONY WITH THE OTHER ELE-

MENTS OF THE CHAIN AND SO SHOULD BE THE DIFFERENT DISCIP-

LINES)

BALANCED SHARE OF DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES

HUMAN CAPITAL {TRAINING IN (BASIC) RESEARCH}

INFRASTRUCTURE (DISCIPLINARY AND GEOGRAPHICAL BALANCE)

APPROPRIATE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM


Whither european science

INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

BALANCE BETWEEN NATIONAL AND EUROPEAN INSTI-

TUTIONS, FACILITIES AND FINANCING

ERC: EXCELLENCE (competition on European scale)

PROFESSIONAL INDEPENDENCE

ATTRACTIVITY (larger grants than national; minimal

bureaucracy; EU funds)

PEER REVIEW ON MERIT BASIS ONLY

ALL DISCIPLINES

IN HARMONY WITH THE OTHER ELEMENTS OF THE R&D

CHAIN (THE ROLE OF THE COMMISSION)


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

ERC (1)

ONE OF THE KEY INSTRUMENTS TO REALIZE THE ERA

EXPECTED BENEFITS

- NEW KNOLEDGE, IDEAS, DISCOVERIES

- HIGHER QUALITY BY EUROPEAN SCALE COMPETITION

- STRONGER EUROPEAN RESEARCH EFFORTS

- DECREASING FRAGMENTATION

- MINIMAL DUPLICATION OF EFFORTS AND RESOURCES

- THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION MAY HAVE A BETTER VIEW

OF RESEARCH IN EUROPE


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

ERC (2)

HOW?

TO PROMOTE EXCELLENCE IN ALL AREAS OF SCIENCE

COMPETITIVE FUNDING

SPECIAL EUROPEAN PROGRAMMES FOR TRAINING AND MOBILITY (TO INCREASE THE QUALITY AND NUMBER OF RESEARCHERS IN EUROPE)

TO SUPPORT GROUP RESEARCH BUT INDIVIDUALS (FIRST OF ALL YOUNG RESEARCHERS) TOO


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

ERC (3)

OWNERSHIP AND FUNDING

ERC CREATED BY THE UNION AND ITS HEADS OF STATES

ACCOUNTABLE TO THE EU THROUGH ITS GOVERNING BODY

AUTONOMOUS SCIENTIFIC DECISION MAKING BODY

FUNDING MAINLY FROM THE EU BUDGET (BUT NOT FROM FP)

IN THE NEW TREATY: EU SHOULD HAVE RIGHTS FOR DIRECT FUNDING OF THE ERC

AGREEMENTS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD BE POSSIBLE (E.G. TO OBTAIN FINANCES OR TO BUILD UP OTHER FORMS OF CO-OPERATION)


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

ERC (4)

ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE

GOVERNING BODY APPOINTED BY THE SPONSORS, THUS ACCOUNTABLE TO THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

APPROPRIATE POWER OF THE BOARD (SHOULD INCLUDE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM, INDUSTRY AND THE WIDER SOCIETY)

BUT AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE (IN LINE WITH SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS AND CONDUCT)


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

ERC (5)

HOW TO START?

URGENTLY (IF THE DECISIONS OF LISBON AND BARCELONA ARE TAKEN SERIOUSLY)!

TO START WITH THE AIM TO HAVE (MAINLY) CATALYTIC EFFECTS

(BUT WITH THE POTENTIAL AND APPROPRIATE ORGANIZATION OF THE ERC TO BECOME A MAJOR RESEARCH PROMOTING BODY IN EUROPE)


Whither european science

MAIN GOALS

1.HUMAN POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT[EDUCATION, TRAI-

NING IN RESEARCH, GENDER ISSUE,NEW MEMBERS,

YOUNG GENERATION!!,(BOLOGNA PROCESS,…)]

2.RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE

* VITAL FOR IHP BUT FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT TOO

* LARGE FACILITIES (LHC, ITER, etc.) Eur. added value,

* MEDIUM SIZED INFRASTRUCTURES  complementary,

* SMALL INSTRUMENTS (UNIQUE OR LOCAL)  networked.

* EUROPEAN USE OF NATIONAL FACILITIES ( THE

EC FP PRAXIS HAS BEEN A GREAT SUCCESS)

1

2


Whither european science

OBJECTIVES (1)

DEVELOP IDEAS ON HOW THE STRUCTURAL FUNDS

COULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE 3% OBJECTIVE

TO ACHIEVE SYNERGY (with other instruments)

NORMATIVE AND NOT COMPETITIVE ACCESS

MIX OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE, LOCAL AND EU

FINANCING

INCREASE THE P&P FUNDING ADDED TO SF FOR R&D

HOW TO SUPPORT NEW MEMBERS (KEY SIGNIFICANCE)

CONVINCE THE DECISION MAKERS ON THE NECESSITY

OF THE USE OF SF-S FOR R&D


Whither european science

WHAT ABOUT THE SMALLER COUNTRIES?

IN HUMAN CAPACITY BUILDING:

THE QUALITY DEMANDS ARE THE SAME OR BIGGER

(Big countries make their citizens great, small count-

ries are made great by their citizens)

INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY MORE IMPORTANT

TO OVERCOME THE LANGUAGE BARRIER

SPECIFITIES IN THE DEMAND FOR RESEARCH INFRA-

STRUCTURE


Whither european science

SPECIFICITIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE (1)

*THE BUILDING UP OFNETWORKS (UNIVERSITIES,

RESEARCH INSTITUTES WITH RES. INFRASTRUCTURE,

INDUSTRY, EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING UNITS, TECH-

NOLOGY TRANSFER INSTITUTIONS, VENTURE CAPITAL

SUPPLIERS) OF INCREASED SIGNIFICANCE.

*PREFERENCE OFMEDIUM SIZEFACILITIES(ANALYTICAL

INSTRUMENTS, MATERIALS STUDY INSTRUMENTS,

DATABANKS, BIO INFORMATICS CENTERS),

BROADER IMPACT ON LOCAL TECHNOLOGY NEEDS)


Whither european science

SPECIFICITIES (2)

* THESE FACILITIES ARELESS SPECIFIC, OPEN

BROADER COOPERATION BETWEEN ACADEMIA AND

LOCAL (REGIONAL) INDUSTRY,

* THEY OFFERSERVICETO LOCAL COMPANIES AND

THE EXPERTIZE OF THE SCIENTIFIC STAFF.


Whither european science

STATE OF ART IN THE NEW

MEMBER COUNTRIES

NEED TO IMPROVE THEKNOWLEDGE BASE

UNDERFINANCEDRESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

LOW NUMBER OF RESEARCHERS (WELL TRAINED,

BUT NOT OPTIMALLY USED)

STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS MOSTLY SOLVED

THEY SHOULD BE TREATED AS THE OLD MEMBERS

RESEARCHINFRASTRUCTUREON DIFFERENT LEVELS

IN GENERAL WEAK,BUT IMPROVING;OTHER HURTING INFRASTRUC-

TURAL PRIORITIES (E.G.ROADS, RAILWAYS,ETC.)STRUCTURAL

FUNDS VITAL TO ACHIEVE SATISFACTORY COMPETITIVENESS)


Whither european science

CENTRAL-EUROPEAN CONTRIBUTION

THE REPLY OF THE HUNGARIAN COMMISSIONER TO A

SIMILAR QUESTION AT THE EU PARLAMENT:


Whither european science

BASIC RESEARCH IN THE NEW MEMBER COUNTRIES IS ALSO STRONG ENOUGH TO CONTRIBUTE TO WEALTH CREATION


Whither european science

FINANCES

3% TARGET

FOR R&D IN NATIONAL BUDGETS

PROPER INCREASE IN THE COMMUNITY BUDGET TOO

SUPPORT FOR BASIC RESEARCH (ERC) SHOULD BE

PART OF THE FP BUDGET

COMPETITION ON EQUAL TERMS FOR ALL (neither

preference nor biased judgement of new members in the

selection process of grant applications)

STRUCTURAL FUNDS FOR RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE

(to help to bridge the existing gap of chances)


Whither european science

A NEW INITIATIVE

TO OVERCOME THESE DIFFICULTIES A STRONGER

ROLE OF THE STRUCTURAL FUNDS IN STRENGHTENING

OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE IS RECOMMENDED

{in line with the Lisbon-Barcelona (ERA, 3%) and the

Göteborg (sustainable development) objectives}

KEY SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE NEW MEMBERS

COMMISSION INITIATED WORK IN EURAB, BUDAP. CONF.

( EURAB document for the Commission with

support from the Research and Regional

DG-s)


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?

TO CREATE A GENERAL, COMPETITIVE SUPPORT STRUCTURE ON EUROPEAN LEVEL, TO PROMOTE EXCELLENCE IN BASIC AND STRATEGIC RESEARCH

PROPER EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH IN THE NEW COSTITUTION

HIGHER SPENDING BOTH ON EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL LEVELS, MAXIMIZE INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH

APPROPRIATE ORGANIZATION (STRUCTURE)

NEW INSTRUMENTS

EUROPEAN ADDED VALUE (EXCELLENCE, BUT THE FIRST PRIORITY SHOULD BE COMPETITION ON EUROPEAN SCALE


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?

EURAB (WG-S)

ROLE OF UNIVERSITIES IN ERA, ENLARGEMENT AND ERA,

EVALUATION, ERA SCOPE AND VISION, IMPROVING

INNOVATION, INCREASING THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF

CARREERS, BOOSTING JOINT INVESTEMENT IN R&D (3%),

SME-S AND ERA, SOCIAL SCIENCES

EC (COMMUNICATIONS)

HARMONIZATION (ERA, EHEA, EIA)

ERC

ERCEG (ESF, EURAB, EMBO,…)


Whither european science

EUROPEAN UNION

CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPE

CHANGES IN SCIENCE EARLIER THAN IN OTHER FIELDS

SIGNIFICANT GAP BETWEEN THE EU AND CEE

EVEN BIGGER DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CEEC-S

THE NEED FOR SIMULTANEOUS GLOBAL AND LOCAL

CHANGES (RESEARCH STRUCTURE, FINANTIAL,

ECONOMICAL,…)

CHANGES GO TOGETHER WITH SIGNIFICANT RISKS

RISKS CORRELATED WITH UNCERTAINTIES


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