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Cognitive Development. Chapter 13. Outline. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development Development of Information-Processing Skills Metacognitive Skills and Memory Development

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Cognitive Development

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Cognitive development l.jpg

Cognitive Development

Chapter 13


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Outline

  • Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

    • Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

    • Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Development of Information-Processing Skills

    • Metacognitive Skills and Memory Development

  • Neurophysiological Changes in Development

    • Increasing Neuronal Complexity

    • Maturation of Central Nervous System Structures

  • Cognitive Development in Adulthood

    • Patterns of Growth and Decline

    • Wisdom and Aging


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

  • cognitive development

    • The investigation of how mental skills build and change with increasing physiological maturity (maturation) and experience (learning)

      1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • The most comprehensive theory of cognitive development

  • We can learn as much about children’s intellectual development from examining their incorrect answers to test items as from examining their correct answers


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Development occurs in stages that evolve via equilibration, in which children seek a balance (equilibrium) between what they encounter in their environments and cognitive processes and structures they have


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Equilibration involves three stages:

    • Equilibrium

      • Occurs when child’s existing mode of thought and existing schemas are adequate for confronting and adapting to the challenges of environment

    • Assimilation

      • Incorporating new information into the child’s existing schemas

    • Accommodation

      • Changing the existing schemas to fit the relevant new information about the environment


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)

    • Involves increases in the number and the complexity of sensory (input) and motor (output) abilities during infancy

    • 0-9 months – infant cognition seems to focus only on what the infants immediately can perceive through their senses


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)

    • 9 months and older have a sense of object permanence

      • Knowledge that objects continue to exist even when imperceptible to the infants

    • Children begin to show signs of representational thought

      • Child starts to be able to think about people and objects that are not necessarily perceptible at that moment


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Preoperational Stage (2 to 6-7 years)

    • The child begins actively to develop the internal mental representations that started at the end of the sensorimotor stage

    • Children exhibit centration

      • A tendency to focus on only one especially noticeable aspect of a complicated object or situation


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Concrete-Operational Stage (7-8 to 11-12)

    • Children become able to manipulate mentally the internal representations that they formed during the preoperational period

    • Conservation of quantity

      • The child is able mentally to conserve (keep in mind) a given quantity despite observing changes in the appearance of the object or substance


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Formal-Operational Stage (older than 11-12 years)

    • Children develop mental operations on abstractions and symbols that may not have physical, concrete forms

    • Children are finally fully able to take on perspectives other than their own, even when they are not working with concrete objects


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Rediscovered in 1970s and 1980s

    • Vygotsky emphasized the role of the environment in children’s intellectual development

    • Internalization

      • The absorption of knowledge from context

      • The environment determines what the child internalizes


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

    • The zone of potential development

    • The range of potential between a child’s observable level of realized ability (performance) and the child’s underlying latent capacity (competence), which is not directly obvious


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1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development

1. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Dynamic assessment environment

    • The interaction between child and examiner does not end when the child responds

    • In static testing, when a child gives a wrong answer, the examiner moves on to the next problem

    • In dynamic assessment, when the child gives a wrong answer, the examiner gives the child a graded sequence of guided hints to facilitate problem solving


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Cognitive Development in Adulthood

  • Fluid intelligence

    • The cognitive-processing skills that enable us to manipulate abstract symbols, as in mathematics

  • Crystallized intelligence

    • Our stored knowledge, which is largely declarative, such as vocabulary, but also may be procedural, such as the expertise of a master chess player

  • Although crystallized intelligence is higher, on average, for older adults than for younger adults, fluid intelligence is higher, on average, for young (20s, 30s, 40s) adults than for older ones


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