What is Intelligence?. Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.”.
Convergent Thinking: Ability to apply the rules of logic and knowledge about world to reduce the number of possible solutions to a problem (EX: What can you use a newspaper for? Gain info or news
Howard Gardner disagreed with Spearman’s “g” and proposed a theory of multiple intelligences.
According to this definition, both Einstein and Ruth intelligent
Speculates about 9th intelligence - existential intelligence (the ability to think about the question of life, death and existence)
Sternberg simplifies Gardner and suggests three intelligences rather than eight.
Alice is a good student, always getting good grades until she reached graduate school. Required to come up with original ideas, Alice began to fall behind. Barbara is not such a good student, but she’s brimming over with ideas for research. Celia is neither a good nor a creative student, but she’s street smart; she knows how to play the game—how to get things done.
Sternberg summarizes: “So basically what I’ve said is there are different ways to be smart but ultimately what you want to do is take the components (Alice’s intelligence), apply them to your experience (Barbara), and use them to adapt to, select, and shape your environment (Celia).
The ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions. The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components.
Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. It correlates somewhat with intelligence.
Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base.
Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways.
Adventuresome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack.
Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within.
A Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom.
Divergent Thinking: Ability to generate many different but plausible responses to a problem. (EX: What can you use a newspaper for? Paper mache object, light a fire, pad a package)
Use of mathematics to organize, summarize and interpret numerical data.
Statistical analysis is used to determine whether any relationships
or differences among the variables are significant, quantifies the exact
strength of the association.
Used to describe, organize
& summarize data to
make it more understandable
Used to interpret data
& draw conclusions. “What can we infer
about the pop from data gathered
from the sample?”
Score that falls in the center of a distribution of scores.
When there is an even number of scores in a data set, the
median is halfway between the two middle numbers.
Best indicator of central tendency when there is a skew.
The median is unaffected by extreme scores.
Mean ∑ X/N = X
Average of scores in a distribution. Even one extreme score can change the mean radically, possibly making it less representative of the data. Most significant because additional statistical manipulations can be performed on it.
Most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
Indicate the dispersion or spread in a data set. How much the scores
in a set of data vary from: a. Each Other
b. the Mean
Tell you if the scores are very different from one another or if they
cluster around the mean.
The difference between the highest and lowest score in a set of data.
Extreme scores can radically affect the range of a data set.
Reflects the average distance between every score and the mean. Tell
You how different the scores are from the
mean. Tells you whether scores are
packed together or dispersed.
Mode Median Mean
Income per family in thousands of dollarsSkewed Distribution
In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points.
The following environmental changes have contributed to the change:
For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria:
To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures:
Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict.
WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems.
Aptitude = A test designed to predict a person’s ability to learn a new skill (future performance.)
College entrance exams like ACT and SAT
Achievement = A test designed to reflect what you have already learned.
AP examTypes of Tests: Aptitude vs. Achievement
Recent Studies indicate some correlation (about +.40) between brain size and intelligence. As brain size decreases with age, scores on verbal intelligence tests also decrease.
Nova How Smart Can We Get
Gray matter concentration in people with high intelligence.
Savant researchers have not been able to explain these unique abilities, although several theories have been advanced. For example, Rimland notes that underlying all savant abilities is a seemingly limitless memory. The savant’s musical ability is not in composition but rather in an uncanny ability to play back, note for note, long passages heard just once. Savant art is not remarkable for its creativity but for its realism—exact copies of animals or people or scenes done from memory. Rimland theorizes, “The reason you and I can’t multiply four digit numbers in our heads is that we get distracted. Nine times seven, carry the two—I wonder if the parking meter’s about to run out—and four sevens is— hey, how’d I get that stain on my shirt?” In contrast, savants do not have distractions; the brain is dedicated entirely to the task at hand. Treffert notes that savants possess memory that is “exceedingly deep, but very, very narrow.”