RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS
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RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS. RELATIVE CLAUSES CANNOT STAND ALONE! THEY ARE DEPENDENT CLAUSES ATTACHED TO A MAIN CLAUSE. They always begin with a relative pronoun. A relative pronoun translates: who, which, that, whom, to whom, for whom, etc. In Latin,

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RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS

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Relative clauses and pronouns

RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS


Relative clauses and pronouns

RELATIVE CLAUSES CANNOT STAND ALONE!

THEY ARE DEPENDENT CLAUSES ATTACHED TO A

MAIN CLAUSE


Relative clauses and pronouns

They always begin with a relative pronoun.

A relative pronoun translates:

who, which, that, whom, to whom, for whom, etc.


Relative clauses and pronouns

In Latin,

relative pronouns begin with the letters

“qu” or “cu”:


Relative clauses and pronouns

Singular forms:

Nom: qui, quae, quod

Dat: cui, cui, cui,

Acc: quem, quam, quod

Plural forms:

Nom: qui, quae, quae

Dat: quibus, quibus, quibus

Acc. quos, quas, quae


Relative clauses and pronouns

Relative pronouns always refer to a noun or pronoun found in the main clause.

That noun or pronoun is called an antecedent.


Relative clauses and pronouns

For example:

Varica chased the dog, who barked at the children, down the street.

Where is the relative clause?

What word is the relative pronoun?

What word is the antecedent?


Relative clauses and pronouns

  • Relative pronouns must match their antecedents in ONLY:

    • Number

    • Gender


Relative clauses and pronouns

The case of a relative pronoun is determined by its

grammaticalfunction in the clause.


Relative clauses and pronouns

Questions to ask:

what is the verb in the clause?

Is there an expressed noun that functions as the subject of that verb?

If not, then the relative pronoun will function as the subject – and therefore will be in the NOMINATIVE CASE.


Relative clauses and pronouns

  • Questions to ask:

  • If there is an expressed noun in the clause functioning as the verb of that clause, then:

    • The relative pronoun must be functioning as something else!


Relative clauses and pronouns

1. If the relative pronoun is

functioning as the direct object

of the clause, it must be in the:

ACCUSATIVE CASE

If the relative pronoun is functioning as the indirect object of a clause, it must be in the:

DATIVE CASE


Relative clauses and pronouns

IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT YOU LEARN TO ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS!


Relative clauses and pronouns

NOW,

LET’S GO OVER SOME EXAMPLES…….


Relative clauses and pronouns

  • The flowers, which were in the garden, delighted the king.

  • The boy, whom the Egyptians had killed, was bravely defending Quintus

  • The craftsmen, whom the king had summoned from Italy, made a statue of Claudius.

  • The bedroom, which Quintus entered, was very elegant.

  • 5. The palace, in which the king was living, was near the sea.


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