RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS
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RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS. RELATIVE CLAUSES CANNOT STAND ALONE! THEY ARE DEPENDENT CLAUSES ATTACHED TO A MAIN CLAUSE. They always begin with a relative pronoun. A relative pronoun translates: who, which, that, whom, to whom, for whom, etc. In Latin,

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RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS

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RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS


RELATIVE CLAUSES CANNOT STAND ALONE!

THEY ARE DEPENDENT CLAUSES ATTACHED TO A

MAIN CLAUSE


They always begin with a relative pronoun.

A relative pronoun translates:

who, which, that, whom, to whom, for whom, etc.


In Latin,

relative pronouns begin with the letters

“qu” or “cu”:


Singular forms:

Nom: qui, quae, quod

Dat: cui, cui, cui,

Acc: quem, quam, quod

Plural forms:

Nom: qui, quae, quae

Dat: quibus, quibus, quibus

Acc. quos, quas, quae


Relative pronouns always refer to a noun or pronoun found in the main clause.

That noun or pronoun is called an antecedent.


For example:

Varica chased the dog, who barked at the children, down the street.

Where is the relative clause?

What word is the relative pronoun?

What word is the antecedent?


  • Relative pronouns must match their antecedents in ONLY:

    • Number

    • Gender


The case of a relative pronoun is determined by its

grammaticalfunction in the clause.


Questions to ask:

what is the verb in the clause?

Is there an expressed noun that functions as the subject of that verb?

If not, then the relative pronoun will function as the subject – and therefore will be in the NOMINATIVE CASE.


  • Questions to ask:

  • If there is an expressed noun in the clause functioning as the verb of that clause, then:

    • The relative pronoun must be functioning as something else!


1. If the relative pronoun is

functioning as the direct object

of the clause, it must be in the:

ACCUSATIVE CASE

If the relative pronoun is functioning as the indirect object of a clause, it must be in the:

DATIVE CASE


IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT YOU LEARN TO ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS!


NOW,

LET’S GO OVER SOME EXAMPLES…….


  • The flowers, which were in the garden, delighted the king.

  • The boy, whom the Egyptians had killed, was bravely defending Quintus

  • The craftsmen, whom the king had summoned from Italy, made a statue of Claudius.

  • The bedroom, which Quintus entered, was very elegant.

  • 5. The palace, in which the king was living, was near the sea.


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