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UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water

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UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water. Chapter 21 Water and Solutions Chapter 22 Water Systems Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land. Chapter Twenty-One: Water and Solutions. 21.1 Water 21.2 Solutions 21.3 Acids, Bases, and pH. Chapter 21.3 Learning Goals.

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unit seven earth s water
UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water
  • Chapter 21 Water and Solutions
  • Chapter 22 Water Systems
  • Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land
chapter twenty one water and solutions
Chapter Twenty-One: Water and Solutions
  • 21.1 Water
  • 21.2 Solutions
  • 21.3 Acids, Bases, and pH
chapter 21 3 learning goals
Chapter 21.3 Learning Goals
  • Differentiate between acids and bases.
  • Define pH.
  • Explain the significance of acids, bases, and pH to living organisms and the environment.
21 3 what are acids
21.3 What are acids?
  • An acidis a compound that dissolves in water to make a particular kind of solution.
  • Chemically, an acid is any substance that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water.
21 3 what are acids1
21.3 What are acids?

Some properties of acids are:

  • Acids create the sour taste in food, like lemons.
  • Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen (H2) gas.
  • Acids change the color of blue litmus paper to red.
  • Acids can be very corrosive, destroying metals and burning skin through chemical action.
21 3 bases
21.3 Bases
  • A base is any substance that dissolves in water and produces hydroxide ions(OH-).
21 3 what are bases
21.3 What are bases?

Some properties of bases are:

  • Bases create a bitter taste.
  • Bases have a slippery feel, like soap.
  • Bases change the color of red litmus paper to blue.
  • Bases can be very corrosive, destroying metals and burning skin through chemical action.
21 3 acids and bases
21.3 Acids and bases
  • One of the most important properties of water is its ability to act as both a weak acid or as a weak base.
  • In the presence of an acid, water acts as a base.
  • In the presence of a base, water acts as an acid.
21 3 the ph scale
21.3 The pH scale
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
    • Acids have a pH less than 7.
    • A base has a pH greater than 7.
    • Pure water has a pH equal to 7.
21 3 the ph scale1
21.3 The pH scale
  • Red and blue litmus paper are pH indicators that test for acids or bases.
21 3 ph in the environment
21.3 pH in the environment
  • The pH of soil directly affects the availability of nutrients for plants.

Blueberries grow best in what pH soil?

21 3 ph in the environment1
21.3 pH in the environment
  • The pH of water directly affects aquatic life.

How are frogs and amphibians sensitive to pH changes?

21 3 acids and bases in your body
21.3 Acids and bases in your body
  • Many reactions, such as the ones that occur in your body, work best at specific pH values.
21 3 ph and blood
21.3 pH and blood
  • The pH of your blood is normally within the range of 7.3–7.5.
  • Holding your breath causes blood pH to drop.
  • High blood pH can be caused by hyperventilating.
21 3 neutralization reactions
21.3 Neutralization reactions
  • When acid and base solutions are mixed in the right proportions, the positive ions from the base combine with the negative ions from the acid.
  • A new ionic compound forms and water is one of the products.
  • This is a neutralization reaction.
21 3 neutralization reaction
21.3 Neutralization reaction
  • Neutralization goes on in your body every day as food and digestive fluids leave the stomach.
  • Having soil that is too acidic is a common problem in the U.S. for farmers and gardeners.
investigation 21c
Key Question:

What is pH?

Investigation 21C

Acids, Bases, and pH

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Are You Feeling a Little Sour?

  • By nature, our slightly alkaline pH needs to remain balanced. Yet what we eat and drink changes our pH.
  • For example, if you eat a lot of meat and no vegetables, your pH becomes acidic.
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