Unit seven earth s water
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UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water. Chapter 21 Water and Solutions Chapter 22 Water Systems Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land. Chapter Twenty-One: Water and Solutions. 21.1 Water 21.2 Solutions 21.3 Acids, Bases, and pH. Chapter 21.3 Learning Goals.

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UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water

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Unit seven earth s water

UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water

  • Chapter 21 Water and Solutions

  • Chapter 22 Water Systems

  • Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land


Chapter twenty one water and solutions

Chapter Twenty-One: Water and Solutions

  • 21.1 Water

  • 21.2 Solutions

  • 21.3 Acids, Bases, and pH


Chapter 21 3 learning goals

Chapter 21.3 Learning Goals

  • Differentiate between acids and bases.

  • Define pH.

  • Explain the significance of acids, bases, and pH to living organisms and the environment.


21 3 what are acids

21.3 What are acids?

  • An acidis a compound that dissolves in water to make a particular kind of solution.

  • Chemically, an acid is any substance that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water.


21 3 what are acids1

21.3 What are acids?

Some properties of acids are:

  • Acids create the sour taste in food, like lemons.

  • Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen (H2) gas.

  • Acids change the color of blue litmus paper to red.

  • Acids can be very corrosive, destroying metals and burning skin through chemical action.


21 3 bases

21.3 Bases

  • A base is any substance that dissolves in water and produces hydroxide ions(OH-).


21 3 what are bases

21.3 What are bases?

Some properties of bases are:

  • Bases create a bitter taste.

  • Bases have a slippery feel, like soap.

  • Bases change the color of red litmus paper to blue.

  • Bases can be very corrosive, destroying metals and burning skin through chemical action.


21 3 acids and bases

21.3 Acids and bases

  • One of the most important properties of water is its ability to act as both a weak acid or as a weak base.

  • In the presence of an acid, water acts as a base.

  • In the presence of a base, water acts as an acid.


21 3 the ph scale

21.3 The pH scale

  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.

    • Acids have a pH less than 7.

    • A base has a pH greater than 7.

    • Pure water has a pH equal to 7.


21 3 the ph scale1

21.3 The pH scale

  • Red and blue litmus paper are pH indicators that test for acids or bases.


21 3 ph in the environment

21.3 pH in the environment

  • The pH of soil directly affects the availability of nutrients for plants.

Blueberries grow best in what pH soil?


21 3 ph in the environment1

21.3 pH in the environment

  • The pH of water directly affects aquatic life.

How are frogs and amphibians sensitive to pH changes?


21 3 acids and bases in your body

21.3 Acids and bases in your body

  • Many reactions, such as the ones that occur in your body, work best at specific pH values.


21 3 ph and blood

21.3 pH and blood

  • The pH of your blood is normally within the range of 7.3–7.5.

  • Holding your breath causes blood pH to drop.

  • High blood pH can be caused by hyperventilating.


21 3 neutralization reactions

21.3 Neutralization reactions

  • When acid and base solutions are mixed in the right proportions, the positive ions from the base combine with the negative ions from the acid.

  • A new ionic compound forms and water is one of the products.

  • This is a neutralization reaction.


21 3 neutralization reaction

21.3 Neutralization reaction

  • Neutralization goes on in your body every day as food and digestive fluids leave the stomach.

  • Having soil that is too acidic is a common problem in the U.S. for farmers and gardeners.


Investigation 21c

Key Question:

What is pH?

Investigation 21C

Acids, Bases, and pH


Unit seven earth s water

Are You Feeling a Little Sour?

  • By nature, our slightly alkaline pH needs to remain balanced. Yet what we eat and drink changes our pH.

  • For example, if you eat a lot of meat and no vegetables, your pH becomes acidic.


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