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Building a Bridge Over the Quality Chasm: The Role of AHRQ and the UT System. Carolyn M. Clancy, MD Director Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality UT Clinical Safety and Effectiveness Inaugural Conference Austin, TX – October 15, 2009. The Fundamental Problem.

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Building a bridge over the quality chasm the role of ahrq and the ut system l.jpg

Building a Bridge Over the Quality Chasm: The Role of AHRQ and the UT System

Carolyn M. Clancy, MD

Director

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

UT Clinical Safety and Effectiveness Inaugural Conference

Austin, TX – October 15, 2009


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The Fundamental Problem and the UT System

“The fundamental problem with the quality of American medicine is that we’ve failed to view delivery of health care as a science. … That’s a mistake, a huge mistake.”

Peter Pronovost, MD


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Challenges and the UT System

  • Concerns about health spending – about $2.3 trillion per year in the U.S. and growing

  • Pervasive problems with the quality of care that people receive

  • Large variations and inequities in clinical care

  • Uncertainty about best practices involving treatments and technologies

  • Translating scientific advances into actual clinical practice and usable information both for clinicians and patients


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Building a Bridge at the and the UT SystemQuality Chasm

  • AHRQ’s Role

  • The Quality Chasm

  • Getting There from Here

  • Q&A


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AHRQ’s Mission and the UT System

Improve the quality, safety, efficiency and effectiveness of health care for all Americans


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HHS Organizational Focus and the UT System

NIH

Biomedical research to prevent, diagnose and treat diseases

CDC

Population health and the role of community-based interventions to improve health

AHRQ

Long-term and system-wide improvement of health care quality and effectiveness


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AHRQ Priorities and the UT System

Patient Safety

  • Health IT

  • Patient SafetyOrganizations

  • New PatientSafety Grants

Effective HealthCare Program

AmbulatoryPatient Safety

  • Comparative Effectiveness Reviews

  • Comparative Effectiveness Research

  • Clear Findings for Multiple Audiences

  • Safety & Quality Measures,Drug Management andPatient-Centered Care

  • Patient Safety ImprovementCorps

Other Research & Dissemination Activities

Medical ExpenditurePanel Surveys

  • Visit-Level Information on Medical Expenditures

  • Annual Quality & Disparities Reports

  • Quality & Cost-Effectiveness, e.g.Prevention and PharmaceuticalOutcomes

  • U.S. Preventive ServicesTask Force

  • MRSA/HAIs


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AHRQ Roles and Resources and the UT System

  • Health IT Research

  • Funding

  • Support advances that improve safety and quality

  • Continue work in hospital settings

  • Step up use of HIT to improve ambulatory care

  • Develop Evidence Base for Best Practices

  • Patient-centered care

  • Medication management

  • Integration of decision support tools

  • Enabling quality measurement

  • Promote Collaboration

  • and Dissemination

  • Support efforts of other federal agencies (e.g., CMS, HRSA)

  • Build on public and private partnerships

  • Use web tools to share knowledge and expertise


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AHRQ FY 2009 Funding and the UT System

  • $372 million

    • $37 million more than FY 2008

    • $46 million more than the president’s request

  • FY 2009 appropriation includes:

    • $50 million for comparative effectiveness research, $20 million more than FY 2008

    • $49 million for patient safety activities

    • $45 million for health IT

Plus: significant ARRA funding (more on that later)


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Building a Bridge at the and the UT SystemQuality Chasm

  • AHRQ’s Role

  • The Quality Chasm

  • Getting There from Here

  • Q&A


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The Quality Chasm: and the UT SystemThe STEEEP Challenge

  • In 1999, in To Err is Human, Institute of Medicine estimated that 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year in the United States as a result of medical error

  • In 2001, IOM observed that a “quality chasm” exists between the care that should be provided and care that actually is provided

  • IOM defined quality care as care that is safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable, and patient centered


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2008 Healthcare Quality Report and the UT System

  • Key Themes

    • Health care quality is suboptimal and improves at a slow pace (1.8% annually for core measures; 1.4% for all measures)

    • Reporting of hospital quality is spurring improvement, but patient safety is lagging

    • Health care quality measurement is evolving but much work remains


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2008 Healthcare Disparities Report and the UT System

  • Key Themes:

    • Disparities persist in health care quality and access

    • Magnitude and pattern of disparities are different within subpopulations

    • Some disparities exist across multiple priority populations


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  • = and the UT SystemMost Recent Year = Baseline Year

Texas: Dashboard on Overall Health Care Quality vs. All States

Average

Weak

Strong

Very Weak

Very Strong

Performance Meter: All Measures

2008 National Healthcare Quality Report, State Snapshots


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Texas Snapshot and the UT System

2008 National Healthcare Quality Report, State Snapshots


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Tools to Address the Chasm and the UT System

  • Health IT (efficiency, timeliness)

  • Comparative effectiveness research (safety, effectiveness)

  • Direct engagement with consumers (equity, patient-centeredness)


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AHRQ Health IT Investment: $260 Million and the UT System

AHRQ Health IT Research Funding

  • Long-term agency priority

  • AHRQ has invested more than $260 million in contracts and grants

  • More than 150 communities, hospitals, providers, and health care systems in 48 states


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AHRQ Health IT Initiative and the UT System

  • State and regional demonstrations

  • Health IT grants

  • Privacy and security solutions for interoperable health information exchange

  • ASQ Initiative

  • E-prescribing pilots

  • CDS demonstrations

  • Technical assistance for Medicaid and CHIP agencies


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AHRQ National Resource Center for Health IT and the UT System

  • Established in 2004

  • Central national source of information and assistance for advancing health IT goals

  • Maintains operation of the AHRQ health IT Web site

  • Direct technical assistance to AHRQ grantees

  • Repository for lessons learned from AHRQ’s health IT initiative


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Health IT EPC Report and the UT System

  • First synthesis of existing evidence on factors influencing the usefulness, usability, barriers and drivers to use, and effectiveness of consumer applications

  • The top factor associated with use by patients was the perception of a health benefit

  • Patients prefer systems tailored to them that incorporate familiar devices


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AHRQ National Resource Center for Health IT Web Site and the UT System

  • Features AHRQ’s portfolio of health IT projects

  • Funding opportunities

  • News releases

  • Emerging lessons and best practices

  • Meetings and events

http://healthit.ahrq.gov/


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Ambulatory Safety and and the UT SystemQuality (ASQ) Program

  • Purpose: Improve safety and quality of ambulatory health care in the U.S. More than 60 grants

  • Sample types of health IT used in projects:

    • PHRs

    • Clinical/medication reminders

    • Clinical decision support

    • Telehealth

    • Human/machine interface


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ASQ Grants: Texas and the UT System

  • Using Electronic Records To Detect and Learn From Ambulatory Diagnostic Errors – University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

    • Type of Health IT: Operational decision support (quality of care)

    • Duration of Project: 9/30/2007 – 9/29/2009

  • Using Information Technology To Provide Measurement-Based Care for Chronic Illness – Texas Southwest Medical Center at Dallas

    • Type of Health IT: CDS (provider-focused)

    • Duration of project: 9/3-/2007 – 9/29/2010




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Essential Questions Posed by Comparative Effectiveness and the UT System

Is this treatment right?

Is this treatment right for me?


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AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Research and the UT System

http//:effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov


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Effective Health Care Program and the UT System

  • Evidence synthesis (EPC program)

    • Systematically reviewing, synthesizing, comparing existing evidence on treatment effectiveness

    • Identifying relevant knowledge gaps

  • Evidence generation (DEcIDE, CERTs)

    • Development of new scientific knowledge to address knowledge gaps.

    • Accelerate practical studies

  • Evidence communication/translation (Eisenberg Center)

    • Translate evidence into improvements

    • Communication of scientific information in plain language to policymakers, patients, and providers


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Arthritis and non-traumatic joint disorders and the UT System

Cancer

Cardiovascular disease, including stroke and hypertension

Dementia, including Alzheimer Disease

Depression and other mental health disorders

Developmental delays, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism

Diabetes Mellitus

Functional limitations and disability

Infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS

Obesity

Peptic ulcer disease and dyspepsia

Pregnancy including pre-term birth

Pulmonary disease/Asthma

Substance abuse

AHRQ Priority Conditions


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Comparative Effectiveness and the UT Systemand the Recovery Act

  • The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 includes $1.1 billion for comparative effectiveness research:

    • AHRQ: $300 million

    • NIH: $400 million (appropriated to AHRQ and transferred to NIH)

    • Office of the Secretary: $400 million (allocated at the Secretary’s discretion)

Funding for health IT, prevention and other areas have implications for the Agency


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Translating the Science into Real-World Applications

  • Examples of Recovery Act-funded Evidence Generation projects:

    • Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness (CHOICE): First coordinated national effort to establish a series of pragmatic clinical comparative effectiveness studies ($100M)

    • Request for Registries: Up to five awards for the creation or enhancement of national patient registries, with a primary focus on the 14 priority conditions ($48M)

    • DEcIDE Consortium Support: Expansion of multi-center research system and funding for distributed data network models that use clinically rich data from electronic health records ($24M)


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The Bottom Line Applications

“Patients’ ratings of hospital care are of interest because they are, in many ways, “the bottom line.”’

New England Journal of Medicine

Patients’ Perspectives of Care in the United States New England Journal of Medicine 359;18 www.nejm.org October 30, 2008


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AHRQ Patient Engagement Campaigns Applications

Primary Campaign

Spanish-Language Campaign

Men’s Preventive Health Campaign

PSA by Fran Drescher


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Plain Language Guides Applicationsin English & Spanish


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Hispanic Elderly Initiative Applications

  • HHS pilot initiative aimed at improving the health and quality of life for Hispanic elders

  • Eight metropolitan communities selected to participate in the pilot: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, McAllen, Miami, New York, San Antonio, and San Diego

  • Medicare participation and diabetes care are target areas of work for each of the communities


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Building a Bridge at the ApplicationsQuality Chasm

  • AHRQ’s Role

  • The Quality Chasm

  • Getting There from Here

  • Q&A


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Future Challenges Applications

Downstream effects of policy applications

Using technology, but not letting technology determine our priorities

Care coordination: what can we learn from large integrated systems?

Public-private funding and participation likely a necessity

Patients should always be engaged as partners: it’s about them, not about you


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What Does It Mean to Be Applications‘Patient-Centric?’


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Technology and Consumers Applications

  • We create tools that make care more efficient for clinicians

  • Consumers already are comfortable with the technology; they’re leading us, not the other way around

  • Consumers are demanding tools to make their care more about them; let’s satisfy the demand!


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21 Applicationsst Century Health Care

Using Information to Drive Improvement: Scientific Infrastructure to Support Reform

Information-rich, patient-focused enterprises

Information and evidence transform interactions from reactive to proactive (benefits and harms)

Evidence is continually refined as a by-product of care delivery

21st Century Health Care

Actionable information available – to clinicians AND patients – “just in time”


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According to Yogi Berra Applications

“If you don't know where you are going, you might wind up someplace else.”

Yogi Berra


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Funding Opportunities Applications

  • Opportunities for the field to become involved are made available as soon as possible:

    • To sign up for updates, visit http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov

    • To review AHRQ’s standing program and training award announcements http://www.ahrq.gov/fund/grantix.htm


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Building a Bridge at the ApplicationsQuality Chasm

  • AHRQ’s Role

  • The Quality Chasm

  • Getting There from Here

  • Q&A


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