Remote sensing of natural hazards
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Remote sensing of natural hazards Remote sensing = satellite imagery and aerial photography They range from low resolution (weather satellites) to very high res .. capable of detecting objects <1 metre. Hurricane Katrina. 1. Introduction-Instruments: Most satellite images are not photos.

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Remote sensing of natural hazards Remote sensing = satellite imagery and aerial photography

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Remote sensing of natural hazards

Remote sensing =

satellite imagery and aerial photography

They range from low resolution (weather satellites) to very high res ..

capable of detecting objects <1 metre

Hurricane

Katrina


1. Introduction-Instruments:Most satellite images are not photos

Millennium Island photographed by a crew member on the International Space Station

This image was acquired with a Nikon D3 digital camera fitted with an 800 mm lens


Geostationary: 36,000 km above equator, stay vertically above the same spot, rotates with earth - weather images, e.g. GOES (Geostat. Operational Env. Satellite)

Scanning enables the data to be transmitted back to earth from the satellite. orbits


Sun-synchronous satellites:700-900 km altitude, rotates at circa 81-82 degree angle to equator: captures imagery approx the same time each day (10am +/- 30 minutes) -

Landsat path: earthnow


Intro– Resolution (pixel size)  ~1 m to 10km

Low resolution 1km - 10km (international)

Medium resolution     100m -1km (national)

High resolution      10 -100 m (regional)

Very High resolution   1 - 10 metres (local)  


Introduction Energy wavelengths used for remote sensing

  • Visible wavelengths

  • Near/mid Infra-Red (vegetation and moisture)

  • Thermal infra-red (heat)

  • Microwave radar (cloud-free)


2. Sensors: Low resolution - weather satellites

http://www.osei.noaa.gov/


Sensors: MODIS – medium resolution

http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/


Sensors: ASTER - High resolution

http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery.asp?catid=70


Sensors:

Very high resolution –

corporate satellites

e.g Ikonos, Quickbird, GeoEye

http://www.satimagingcorp.com/galleryimages/high-resolution-remote-sensor-sri-lanka-flood.jpg


GeoEye 50cm resolution: Vancouver Olympic village (April 26, 2009)


Selected satellite remote sensing systems


  • 3. Application examples - remote sensing can be used for:

  • A. Mapping - damage assessment

  • B. Monitoring (in progress)

  • C. Prediction / mitigation

Tornado Rips Through Maryland, 2002 (west <- east)


Lava flow, New Aiyansh


USGS Volcano Hazards http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/

Earth Observatory: Anak Krakatau

Ikonos satellite on June 11, 2005.


Use of LiDAR digital elevation models for flood plain mapping and mitigation

http://www.airborneimaginginc.com/images/data_samples/Full_size/Floodplain_map.jpg


Remote Sensing for Hazard Assessment: Landslides - Hong Kong

http://www.cse.polyu.edu.hk/rcuhm/research_1.html

LANDSAT Thematic Mapper colour composite, bands 2, 4 and 6 with band 6 (thermal band) displayed as red and band 4 (visible infra-red) as green.

Red areas represent hot spots and correspond to areas of grassland which have been burnt during the dry season.


4. Remote sensing of hazards by type … Volcanoes

http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery.asp?catid=10


This ASTER image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8 ash and steam eruption (2005) http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/earthandsun/mshelenslidar_prt.htm


Landslides

Pakistan


Avalanches, Bowron Lakes


Climate change: melting polar ice cap

http://arctic.atmos.uiuc.edu/cryosphere/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMQ21p93JZc&NR=1


Climate change:

Glacier melt

- lake dam collapse:

Huarez, Peru

A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people.


Rita: Evolution From Tropical Storm to HurricaneWhile Rita is dragging over both Cuba and the Florida peninsula, she can't draw much power since there is less water available for evaporation. However, once she starts to clear Cuba and Florida, and gets over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico, she is able to spin up into a full hurricane. From these images, you can also see that her path will take her across the Gulf, towards the Texas coast.

http://www.runet.edu/~rusmart/imageoftheday/2005-09-21.html


http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/hurricane/track_e.html


MODIS Rapid Response System Global Fire Maps

http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov


5. Some general websites for remote sensing of hazards

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/archive.php


Mapping reference for hazards- Canada

Natural Resources Canada - natural hazards

http://ess.nrcan.gc.ca/disdan/index_e.php

http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/environment/naturalhazards


http://www.disasterscharter.org/web/charter/map


Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis

http://www.drgeorgepc.com/index.html

e.g. http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Cyclone2008Burma.html


Satellite images and digital terrain models for 3D visualisation

http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images/msh.mpg


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