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A Comparative Study of Periodic Broadcasting Scheme for Large-Scale Video Streaming. Prepared by Nera Liu. Agenda. Introduction Four Dimensions of Design Spaces Periodic Broadcasting Schemes Comparisons Analysis of Design Spaces in Optimal Scheme Customized Optimal Scheme

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A comparative study of periodic broadcasting scheme for large scale video streaming

A Comparative Study of Periodic Broadcasting Scheme for Large-Scale Video Streaming

Prepared by Nera Liu


Agenda
Agenda Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Introduction

  • Four Dimensions of Design Spaces

  • Periodic Broadcasting Schemes

  • Comparisons

  • Analysis of Design Spaces in Optimal Scheme

  • Customized Optimal Scheme

  • Customized Poly-harmonic Broadcasting Scheme

  • Q & A


Introduction
Introduction Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • TV System

    • Broadcasting TV programs are pre-scheduled

    • All viewers enjoy the programs with the same channel

  • Video-on-Demand (VOD) System

    • Broadcasting video are not pre-scheduled

    • The viewers request the video on demand

    • Provides a flexible way of enjoying video

  • Why is there not a large deployment of VOD System?


Introduction problems
Introduction - Problems Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • TV System

Viewers

Antenna

  • VOD System

Viewers

Servers


Introduction problems1
Introduction - Problems Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Problems

    • The cost of VOD system increases as the number of viewers increases

    • The system does not benefit from economical efficiency

    • It competes with some cheap operating competitors, like video rental shop

  • Solutions

    • Multicast

      • A group of viewers can share one channel for enjoyment

    • Reactive solutions

      • It transmits the data in response to the user requests

      • It is suitable to small traffic, say 10 requests/sec

      • Example: Batching, Patching

    • Proactive solutions

      • It transmits the data with a pre-defined schedule, irregardless of user requests.

      • It is designed for large traffic

      • Example: Periodic Broadcasting Scheme

  • K. A. Hua, Y. Cai, and S. Sheu, "Patching: A Multicast Technique For True Video-on-Demand Services," Proc. 6th International Conference on Multimedia, Sept 1998 Page(s): 191-200.

  • A. Dan, D. Sitaram, and P. Shahabuddin, "Scheduling Policies for an On-Demand Video Server with Batching," Proc. 2nd ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 1994 Page(s): 15-23.


Notation of symbols
Notation of Symbols Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Some of them will be introduced later


The simplest nvod

A Movie with length L Large-Scale Video Streaming

The movie is broadcasting every L/K sec

Time

A user arrives at time t, the maximum access latency is L/K sec

The simplest - NVOD

  • Near Video-on-Demand (NVOD)

  • The access latency =

  • The client access bandwidth = 1 channel (b Mbit/sec)

  • The client buffer requirement = 0 Mbit


Analysis of design spaces
Analysis of Design Spaces Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Movie Partition Algorithm

  • Bandwidth Partition Algorithm

  • Broadcasting Schedule

  • Reception Schedule


Movie partition algorithm
Movie Partition Algorithm Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • This governs how to partition the movie into a number of segment

  • The access latency depends on the frequency of the movie broadcast

  • Partition the first portion of movie into small segment, so as to increase the frequency of this small segment broadcast

  • Trade off?

    • The viewer needs to download movie from more than one logical channel.

    • The viewer may need buffer.

    • The scheme must guarantee continuous playback.


Bandwidth partition algorithm

The movie segment is streamed with high data rate Large-Scale Video Streaming

The movie segment is streamed with low data rate

It does not guarantee continuous playback

The time the viewer enters the system

Time to play back the movie segment

Bandwidth Partition Algorithm

  • This is an algorithm of how to divide the total server bandwidth into a group of logical channels for broadcasting different movie segments

  • Play a critical factor in server bandwidth requirement and continuous playback in the client

  • Client access bandwidth Vs Client buffer requirement


Broadcasting schedule

The broadcast period of the movie segment Large-Scale Video Streaming

Time

The time to play back the movie segment D

The time the viewer enters the system

Broadcasting Schedule

  • This schedule governs

    • The broadcast period of the movie segments

    • The broadcast schedule on which logical channel broadcasts which movie segments

  • It also play a critical factor in the server bandwidth efficiency and continuous play back.


Reception schedule

A Movie with length L Large-Scale Video Streaming

Time

Inefficient NVOD System

Reception Schedule

  • This governs how the viewer receives the movie segments from the logical channels

  • The flexibility of this dimension of design space is due to the server bandwidth inefficiency introduced by the broadcasting schedule.


Pyramid broadcasting scheme pb

The movie is partitioned with Large-Scale Video Streaming = 2

The shape of pyramid

Time

Pyramid Broadcasting Scheme (PB)

  • Motivation: Movie Partition Algorithm Initiative

  • Movie Partition:

    • The movie is partitioned according to a geometric series

    • Di+1 =  Di

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned equally (control by the parameter )

  • Access latency = The size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = 2 channels (for  = 2, 4b Mbit/sec)

  • Client buffer requirement = About 90% of movie size

  • S. Viswanathan, and T. Imielinski, "Metropolitan area video-on-demand service using pyramid broadcasting," Multimedia Systems, vol. 4, pp. 197-208, 1996.


Permutation based pyramid broadcasting scheme ppb

Each logical channel is partitioned into p sub-channels Large-Scale Video Streaming

Time

Permutation-based Pyramid Broadcasting Scheme (PPB)

  • Motivation: Streaming the segments with low data rate to reduce the client buffer requirement in PB.

  • Movie Partition:

    • The movie is partitioned according to a geometric series

    • Di+1 =  Di

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned equally (control by the parameter )

    • Each logical channel is partitioned into p sub-channels

  • Access latency = The size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = 2 channels

  • Client buffer requirement =

  • C.C. Aggarwal, J.L. Wolf, and P.S. Yu, "A permutation-based pyramid broadcasting scheme for video-on-demand systems," IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 118-126, Jun 1996.


Skyscraper broadcasting scheme sb

The shape of skyscraper Large-Scale Video Streaming

Time

Skyscraper Broadcasting Scheme (SB)

  • Principle: Solve the client buffer requirement in PB by a parameter W

  • Movie Partition:

    • The movie is partitioned according to a pre-defined function

    • Introduced a parameter W to confine the movie segment size

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned into equal size logical channel (b Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency = The size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = 2 channels (2b Mbit/sec)

  • Client buffer requirement = D1b(W – 1) Mbit

  • K.A. Hua, and S. Sheu, "Skyscraper Broadcasting A New Broadcasting Scheme for Metropolitan Video-on-Demand Systems," ACM SIG-COMM. Sept. 1997.


Greedy disk conserving broadcasting scheme gdb
Greedy Disk Conserving Broadcasting Scheme (GDB) Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Aims: Minimize the server bandwidth so as to guarantee a given access latency under a given client I/O bandwidth

  • Movie Partition:

    • The movie is partitioned according to a given function

    • Introduced a system parameter to constrain the size of movie

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned into equal size logical channel (b Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency = the size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = can be set by a system parameter

  • Client buffer requirement = same as SB

  • L. Gao, J. Kurose, D. Towsley, "Efficient Schemes for Broadcasting Popular Videos," Proceedings of NOSSDAV '98, Cambridge, UK, July 1998.


Harmonic broadcasting scheme hb

L1 Large-Scale Video Streaming

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

Channel 1 with b (Mbit/sec)

Channel 2 with b/2 (Mbit/sec)

Channel 3 with b/3 (Mbit/sec)

Channel 4 with b/4 (Mbit/sec)

L2

L2

L2

L2

L2

L2

Time

Harmonic Broadcasting Scheme (HB)

  • Motivation: Bandwidth Partition Algorithm Initiative

  • Movie Partition:

    • The movie is partitioned into equal size segment

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned into K logical channels ( Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency = the size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = Total server bandwidth

  • Client buffer requirement = Bounded by 37% of movie size

  • L. S. Juhn, and L. M. Tseng, "Harmonic Broadcasting for Video-on-Demand Service," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 43(3), Sep 1997, Page(s): 268-271.


Variants of harmonic broadcasting scheme
Variants of Harmonic Broadcasting Scheme Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Cautious Harmonic Broadcasting Scheme (CHB)

  • Quasi Harmonic Broadcasting Scheme (QHB)

  • J. F. Paris, S.W. Carter, and D. D. E. Long, "Efficient Broadcasting Protocols for Video on Demand," Proc. 6th International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS '98), July 1998, Page(s): 127-132.


Poly harmonic broadcasting scheme phb

L1 Large-Scale Video Streaming

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

L2

L2

L2

L2

Time

Poly-harmonic Broadcasting Scheme (PHB)

  • Movie Partition:

    • It partitions the movie into equal size segment

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • It partitions the bandwidth into K logical channels ( Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency =

  • Client access bandwidth = Total server bandwidth

  • Client buffer requirement = Bounded by 37% of movie size

  • J. F. Paris, S.W. Carter, and D. D. E. Long, "A Low Bandwidth Broadcasting Protocol for Video on Demand," Proc. 7th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N '98), Oct 1998, Page(s): 690-697.


Staircase data broadcasting scheme sdb

L(1) Large-Scale Video Streaming

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L1

L(2,1)

L(2,2)

L(2,1)

L(2,2)

L(2,1)

L(2,2)

The shape of staircase

L(3,1)

L(3,2)

L(3,1)

L(3,2)

L(3,1)

L(3,2)

Time

Staircase Data Broadcasting Scheme (SDB)

  • Principle: Complicated Reception Schedule

  • Movie Partition:

    • It partitions the movie into equal size segment

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned into equal size logical channel (b Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency = the size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth < 2 channels (2b Mbit/sec)

  • Client buffer requirement = Bounded by 25% of movie size

  • L. S. Juhn and L. M. Tseng, "Staircase Data Broadcasting and Receiving Scheme for Hot Video Service," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol.43(4), Nov 1997, Page(s): 1110-1117.


Fast data broadcasting scheme fb

L(1) Large-Scale Video Streaming

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(2)

L(3)

L(2)

L(3)

L(2)

L(3)

L(4)

L(5)

L(6)

L(7)

L(4)

L(5)

Time

Fast Data Broadcasting Scheme (FB)

  • Movie Partition:

    • It partitions the movie into equal size segment

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned into equal size logical channel (b Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency = the size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = At most the total server bandwidth

  • Client buffer requirement =

  • L.S. Juhn, and L.M. Tseng, " Fast Broadcasting for Hot Video Access," RTCSA'97: the proceedings of the 4th international workshop on real-time computing systems and applications, pp. 237-243, Oct 1997.


Hybrid broadcasting scheme hyb

L(1) Large-Scale Video Streaming

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(1)

L(2)

L(4)

L(2)

L(5)

L(2)

L(4)

L(2)

L(5)

L(3)

L(6)

L(8)

L(3)

L(7)

L(9)

L(3)

L(6)

Time

Hybrid Broadcasting Scheme (HYB)

  • Motivation: Broadcasting Schedule Initiative

  • Movie Partition:

    • It partitions the movie into equal size segment

  • Bandwidth Partition:

    • The bandwidth is partitioned into equal size logical channel (b Mbit/sec)

  • Access latency = the size of the first movie segment

  • Client access bandwidth = At most the total server bandwidth

  • Client buffer requirement = Bounded by 46% of movie size

  • J.F. Paris, S.W. Carter, and D.D.E. Long, "A hybrid broadcasting protocol for video on demand," Proc. 1997 Multimedia Computing and Networking Conference (MMCN'99), San Jose, CA, Jan 1999, pp 317-326.


Comparison
Comparison Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Aim: find out the practicability of deploying difference broadcasting scheme under current network infrastructures.

  • 1st Comparison

    • Study the access latency of each scheme under a range of server bandwidth requirement

  • 2nd Comparison

    • Study the access latency of each scheme under client access bandwidth constraint

  • 3rd Comparison

    • Study the access latency of each scheme under client buffer constraint


1 st comparison
1 Large-Scale Video Streamingst Comparison

  • The access latency of difference scheme


2 nd comparison client access bandwidth constraint
2 Large-Scale Video Streamingnd Comparison – client access bandwidth constraint

  • The client access bandwidth


2 nd comparison
2 Large-Scale Video Streamingnd Comparison

  • The access latency of difference scheme


3 rd comparison client buffer constraint
3 Large-Scale Video Streamingrd Comparison – client buffer constraint

  • The access latency under different client buffer constraint

  • Server bandwidth = 9Mbit/sec

  • Client Access bandwidth = 2b Mbit/sec


3 rd comparison client buffer constraint1
3 Large-Scale Video Streamingrd Comparison – client buffer constraint

  • The access latency under different client buffer constraint

  • Server bandwidth = 30Mbit/sec

  • Client Access bandwidth = 2b Mbit/sec


Analysis of design spaces for optimal scheme

The broadcast period of the movie segment Large-Scale Video Streaming

Time

The time to play back the movie segment D

The time the viewer enters the system, t = 0

Analysis of Design Spaces for Optimal Scheme

  • Broadcasting Scheme:

    • Broadcast Period

  • Design:

    • In designing a broadcasting schedule of an optimal periodic broadcasting scheme, each movie segment must be broadcasted with broadcast period BTi of t + T, where t is the start play point of movie segments.


Analysis of design spaces for optimal scheme1
Analysis of Design Spaces for Optimal Scheme Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Movie Partition Algorithm

    • The size of the movie segment

  • Design:

    • In designing an optimal periodic broadcasting scheme, the movie must be partitioned into movie segments as small as possible, so that each movie play point t can be broadcasted with its broadcast period BTi of t + T

The broadcast period of this play point t + t is t + T

The broadcast period of this play point t is t + T

The broadcast period of the movie segment

Time

The time to play back the movie segment D

The time the viewer enters the system, t = 0


Analysis of design spaces for optimal scheme2
Analysis of Design Spaces for Optimal Scheme Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Broadcast Partition Algorithm

    • Data rate of streaming

  • Design:

    • In designing an optimal periodic broadcasting scheme with a guarantee access latency T, each movie segment must be broadcasted as low rate as possible with a guarantee of continuous playback.


Analysis of design spaces for optimal scheme3
Analysis of Design Spaces for Optimal Scheme Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Reception Schedule

    • The flexibility of this dimension of design space is due to the server bandwidth inefficiency introduced by the broadcasting schedule.

  • For an optimal broadcasting scheme, there is no room for designing this schedule

  • Design:

    • In designing an optimal periodic broadcasting scheme with a guarantee access latency T, each viewer is required to download all the movie segments from all the


Optimal periodic broadcasting scheme
Optimal Periodic Broadcasting Scheme Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Theoretical Limitation of optimal periodic broadcasting scheme

  • Server bandwidth requirement:

  • Client buffer requirement:

    , where t’ is the time after the viewer enters the system


Optimal periodic broadcasting scheme phb
Optimal Periodic Broadcasting Scheme - PHB Large-Scale Video Streaming


Optimal periodic broadcasting scheme phb1
Optimal Periodic Broadcasting Scheme - PHB Large-Scale Video Streaming


Customized optimal broadcasting scheme
Customized Optimal Broadcasting Scheme Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • PHB fails to pass the 2nd comparison because of its large client access bandwidth.

  • So as to optimal broadcasting scheme

  • Relax the requirement of design point 1

    • Broadcasting period


Customized optimal broadcasting scheme1

The total server bandwidth requirement Large-Scale Video Streaming

The client access bandwidth

The play point t

dt

T

T + L

The total server bandwidth requirement

The client access bandwidth

The play point t

dt

T

T + L

Customized Optimal Broadcasting Scheme


Practical implementation customized phb

Client access bandwidth constraint Large-Scale Video Streaming

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9

Time where the client entering the system

S1,1

S1,2

S1,1

S1,2

S1,1

S1,2

S1,1

S1,2

S1,1

S1,2

S1,1

S2,1

S2,2

S2,3

S2,1

S2,2

S2,3

S2,1

S2,2

S2,3

S2,4

S2,1

S3,1

S3,2

S3,3

S3,4

S3,1

S3,2

S3,3

S3,4

S3,1

S3,2

S3,3

S4,1

S4,2

S4,3

S4,1

S4,2

S4,3

S4,1

S4,2

S4,3

S5,1

S5,2

S5,3

S5,1

S5,2

S5,3

S5,1

S5,2

S6,1

S6,2

S6,3

S6,1

S6,2

S6,3

S6,1

S7,1

S7,2

S7,3

S7,1

S7,2

S7,3

S8,1

S8,2

S8,3

S8,1

S8,2

S9,1

S9,2

S9,3

S9,1

Practical Implementation – Customized PHB


Future work
Future work Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Evaluate the performance of customized PHB with the theoretical limitation


Q & A Large-Scale Video Streaming

  • Thank you


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