6 major divisions of the brain
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6 Major divisions of the brain. Cerebrum Brain Stem Diencephalon Midbrain (Mesencephalon) Pons Medulla Oblongata Cerebellum. The cerebrum (Fig 8-16, p. 257). Covered by cerebral cortex E levated ridges, gyri ; separated by sulci (shallow) or fissures (deeper)

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6 Major divisions of the brain

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6 major divisions of the brain

6 Major divisions of the brain

  • Cerebrum

  • Brain Stem

    • Diencephalon

    • Midbrain (Mesencephalon)

    • Pons

  • Medulla Oblongata

  • Cerebellum


The cerebrum fig 8 16 p 257

The cerebrum (Fig 8-16, p. 257)

  • Covered by cerebral cortex

    • Elevated ridges, gyri; separated by sulci (shallow) or fissures (deeper)

  • Two cerebral hemispheres divided by the longitudinal fissureand linked by the corpus callosum.

  • Each hemisphere divided into lobes

    • Named after underlying bones (Frontal/Parietal/Occipital/Temporal)

    • Lobes defined by central sulcus, lateral sulcus, and parieto-occipital sulcus


The cerebrum fig 8 16 p 2571

The cerebrum (Fig 8-16, p. 257)

  • Location of lobes:

    • Frontal—anterior to central sulcus

    • Temporal—inferior to lateral sulcus

    • Parietal—in between central and parieto-occipital sulcus

    • Occipital—inferior to parieto-occipital sulcus


The cerebrum fig 8 19 p 260

The cerebrum (Fig 8-19, p. 260)

  • Motor and Sensory Areas:

    • Precentralgyrus—primary motor cortex (frontal), directs movement of skeletal muscles

    • Postcentralgyrus—primary sensory cortex (parietal), receives sensory input (touch, pressure, pain, temperature)


The cerebrum fig 8 19 p 2601

The cerebrum (Fig 8-19, p. 260)

  • Other areas of sensation:

    • Visual cortex—visual input in occipital

    • Gustatory cortex—taste sensations in frontal

    • Auditory cortex—auditory input in temporal

    • Olfactory cortex—sensation of smell in temporal


The cerebrum fig 8 20 p 262

The cerebrum (Fig 8-20, P. 262)

  • Hemispheric Lateralization:

    • Left (reading/writing/speaking)

    • Right (spatial sensory/emotional)

  • Cerebral Processing Centers--Lateralized

    • Wernicke’s Area (left): integrate sensory information with visual/auditory memories

    • Broca’s area (left): production of words in normal speech

    • Prefrontal cortex (both): prediction of future consequences; related to feelings of frustration/anxiety; damage=no worries

      • Prefrontal lobotomy “cure” for mental illness


The cranial nerves fig 8 25 p 268

The cranial nerves (Fig. 8-25, P. 268)

  • Olfactory: Only attached to cerebrum; sense of smell

  • Optic: carry visual information from eyes; intersect at optic chiasm

  • Oculomotor: eyelid and eyeball movement

  • Trochlear: moves eye downward and laterally

  • Trigeminal: motor control over chewing muscles

  • Abducens: lateral eye rotation (away from middle)


The cranial nerves fig 8 25 p 2681

The cranial nerves (Fig. 8-25, P. 268)

  • Facial: mixed nerve; proprioception of facial muscles; facial expressions; deep pressure and taste sensations

  • Vestibulocochlear: monitor sensory receptors of inner ear (balance and hearing)

  • Glossopharangeal: innervates tongue and pharynx; taste, salivation

  • Vagus: autonomic control of visceral functions

  • Accessory: innervate neck and back muscles; swallowing

  • Hypoglossal: voluntary control of tongue muscles


Make up your own acronym

Make up your own acronym!

  • Oh—Olfactory

  • Once—Optic

  • One—Oculomotor

  • Takes—Trochlear

  • The—Trigeminal

  • Anatomy—Abducens

  • Final—Facial

  • Very—Vestibulocochlear

  • Good—Glossopharangeal

  • Vacations—Vagus

  • Are—Accessory

  • Heavenly—Hypoglossal


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