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American Industrial Growth and Westward expansion PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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SSUSH11. American Industrial Growth and Westward expansion. Railroads and the West. Following the Civil War, the US continued to expand and become more industrialized.

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American Industrial Growth and Westward expansion

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SSUSH11

American Industrial Growth and Westward expansion


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Railroads and the West

  • Following the Civil War, the US continued to expand and become more industrialized.

  • Railroads helped during this process by granting farmers, ranchers, and other settlers access to eastern markets and resources.

  • In 1862 Congress coordinated an effort among railroad companies to build a transcontinental railroad. They passed the Pacific Railway Act to ensure that this happened.

  • Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads joined their tracks at Promontory, Utah in 1869 to create the first cross-country rail line.


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Pacific Railway Act

  • This granted both the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railway companies the right to lay track.

  • The Central Pacific would lay track eastward from the Pacific Ocean.

  • The Union Pacific would lay track westward from Omaha, Nebraska.

  • The railroads were granted federal land to sell as an incentive to lay the track.

  • In return the companies had to transport goods at a discount price for the federal government.


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Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Act

  • About 15,000 Chinese were hired to build the Central Pacific railroad.

  • After the railroad was completed, the Chinese posted a threat to the limited number of jobs in the West even though they were not citizens.

  • In 1879 the California state constitution was rewritten to place restrictions on the hiring of workers from Asia.

  • The Chinese Exclusion Act passed in 1882 effectively stalled the immigration of more Chinese workers.


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Impact of Railroads

  • With the expansion of the railroad system, many people abandoned their form of lifestyle to move westward.

  • Many Irish and Chinese immigrants made up a large portion of the population in the West.

  • Goods such as cattle and farm products crisscrossed the country.

  • Those looking to make money fast looked to the railroads.

  • In 1874 Jay Gould purchased the Union Pacific Railroad.

  • He soon began buying up smaller railroads, quickly gaining control of the railway lines leading into NY City and Chicago.

  • Gould and Vanderbilt were among a wealthy group of businessmen called robber barons.

  • The goal of this group was to eliminate competition and instead create a monopoly, or total control of an industry.


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Steel Industry and the Bessemer Process

  • Railroads also contributed to the rise of the steel industry.

  • In the 1880’s, a man named Henry Bessemer developed a new method for making steel.

  • This process was known as the Bessemer Process.

  • Using this process it became very easy to make steel and very cheap.

  • This led to a faster expansion of the railway system in the US.


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Impacts of Steel

  • Thanks to steel buildings could be built taller than ever before.

  • By building taller buildings in cities such as New York and Chicago, this allowed them to save more room.


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Leaders of Big Business

  • John D. Rockefeller consolidated smaller companies he and his associates had owned to create Standard Oil.

  • Rockefeller also used vertical integration, or the idea that you should own not only all producing companies but also supplying companies.

  • This was know as the nation’s first Trust, or where several companies unite under one.

  • Andrew Carnegie had total control of the steel industry. This allowed Carnegie to set price rates for railroads and for materials to build large scale buildings.

  • At the end of this time period trusts are going to control railroads, sugar, and the meat industries.


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Carnegie Sells Steel Industry and Government Reaction to Big Business

  • Andrew Carnegie would eventually ended up selling his steel mills to J.P. Morgan.

  • Morgan bought them from Carnegie for $500 million dollars, making Carnegie the richest man in the world.

  • With several businesses controlling much of the US, Congress had to attempt to take control back.

  • In1887, it passed the Interstate Commerce Act which called for “reasonable and just”, shipping rates.

  • Congress followed this with the Sherman Anti-trust Act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraint and monopoly.

  • This showed Congress’s desire to limit the growth of monopolies and trusts.


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Inventions Help Industrialization

  • One of the most influential inventors during this time was Thomas Edison.

  • Edison invented the light bulb, the phonograph, and motion picture camera.

  • Edison’s light bulb transformed how people lived and conducted business.

  • Before electric light bulbs, people were limited to working only during day hours.

  • Edison now helped businesses continue at night, and it created more opportunities for socializing.


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