Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003
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Environmental Remediation Sciences BERAC Meeting April 30, 2003. Teresa Fryberger Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Associate Director Ari Patrinos. Environmental Remediation Sciences Division Teresa Fryberger, Director.

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Environmental Remediation Sciences BERAC Meeting April 30, 2003

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Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

Environmental Remediation SciencesBERAC Meeting April 30, 2003

Teresa Fryberger

Office of Biological and Environmental Research


Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER)

Associate DirectorAri Patrinos

Environmental Remediation Sciences Division

Teresa Fryberger, Director

Climate Change Research

Division

Jerry Elwood, Director

Life Sciences Division

Marv Frazier, Director

Medical Sciences Division

Michael Viola, Director


Outline

Outline

  • Background—DOE cleanup problems

  • Environmental Sciences Division

  • Strategic Planning so far


Environmental management

Environmental Management

The DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) was created in 1989 to

Address the environmental legacy from over 50 years of nuclear weapons research, production, and testing - some of the most technically challenging and complex work of any environmental program in the world


Environmental legacy nuclear weapons production

Environmental Legacy: Nuclear Weapons Production

SOURCE:

Accumulation from 50 years of nuclear weapons production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors


Doe environmental legacy

DOE Environmental Legacy


Doe environmental legacy1

DOE Environmental Legacy

DOE Problem Wastes - Examples

-403,000 cubic meters of high level waste (HLW)

-250,000 cubic meters of solid transuranic wastes (TRU)

-4.4 million cubic meters of low level waste (LLW)

  • Non-radioactive hazardous wastes and mixed wastes

  • 5,000 – 7000 contaminated facilities


Doe environmental legacy2

DOE Environmental Legacy

DOE Environmental Problems

  • 5,700+ individual plumes contaminating soil and groundwater

  • 7.8 Km2 plume at SRS

  • 18.1 Km2 plume of CCl4 at Hanford

  • 710,000 m3 of soil at NTS

  • 1.5 million m3 of soil at Fernald


The legacy continues

The Legacy Continues

  • More contamination and waste will be identified as characterization continues

  • Decontamination wastes???

  • Secondary waste streams from clean-up operations

  • Long-term stewardship of sites where residual contamination remains


Why do we need basic research for the cleanup

Why Do We Need Basic Research for the Cleanup?

  • We have never done this before

  • To provide a technical basis for making decisions

  • To provide new approaches to cut costs, or sometimes just to provide approaches

  • To resolve technical problems as the cleanup progresses


Hanford in the mid 1940s

Hanford in the mid 1940s


Hanford high level tank wastes

Hanford High Level Tank Wastes

EXAMPLE

  • Single Shell Tanks

    • 149 tanks

    • 35M gallons of wastes

    • 190K tons of chemicals

    • 132M curies of radioactivity

    • 75% Sr-90, 24% Cs-137

    • 65 “leakers”

  • Double Shell Tanks

    • 28 tanks

    • 20M gallons of wastes

    • 55K tons wastes

    • 82M curies of radioactivity

    • 72% Cs-137, 27% Sr-90


  • High level tank wastes how was it created

    High-Level Tank Wastes: how was it created?

    DOE Spent Fuel

    Reprocess

    Acid Waste

    “Neutralization”

    Underground Storage Tanks

    403,000 m3

    Sludge

    (Oxides, Hydroxides, Carbonates Sr, Cs,TRU)

    Saltcake and Supernate

    (Nitrates, Nitrites, Cs, Sr, Tc)


    Treatment of hlw tanks

    Treatment of HLW Tanks

    LLW

    TRUs

    Cs,Sr,Tc

    Liquid

    Volume!!!

    Cost!!!

    Quality!!!

    Separate Cs,Sr, (Tc)?

    ?

    Alkaline High Level Waste

    Sludge

    0.03%

    Radionuclides

    TRUs, Sr, Cs, Tc, Metals

    HLW

    Glass

    $1-2M/glass log


    Hanford high level waste

    Hanford High Level Waste

    Science issues:

    • Chemistry of high pH solutions to predict waste behavior

    • Tailored separations processes to

      • Cut costs

      • Reduce volume

      • Improve waste form performance

    • Designer materials for wasteforms

      • Improve performance

      • Reduce volume/costs

    • Remote characterization and online monitoring tools


    Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    Hanford High Level Wastes

    65 Known Leakers

    Subsurface

    Contaminants:

    Cesium

    Strontium

    Uranium

    Technetium

    Cyanides

    Chromium

    Cobalt

    Nitrates

    What happens during retrieval??

    What does it mean to say “we’re done”??


    Understanding contaminant transport

    Understanding Contaminant Transport

    • Science issues:

      • Modeling/Prediction

      • Complexity

      • Scaling

      • Characterization/monitoring

      • In situ remediation/immobilization

      • Surficial Transport

      • Trophic Transfer


    Galvin commission 1995

    Galvin Commission, 1995

    “There is a particular need for long term, basic research in disciplines related to environmental cleanup … Adopting a science-based approach that includes supporting development of technologies and expertise … could lead to both reduced cleanup costs and smaller environmental impacts at existing sites and to the development of a scientific foundation for advances in environmental technologies.”

    From the 1995 Galvin Commission Report On the Department of Energy Laboratories


    Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    Environmental

    Remediation

    Sciences

    Division


    Environmental remediation sciences division

    Environmental Remediation Sciences Division

    • STAFF

      • Judy Nusbaum

      • Anna Palmisano

      • Paul Bayer

      • Roland Hirsch, Medical Applications Div.

      • Brendlyn Faison, Hampton University

      • Henry Shaw, LLNL

      • 3-4 new slots (hopefully)


    Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    Environmental Remediation Sciences

    D. radiodurans reduces uranium

    R&D for solutions to DOE’s long-term environmental cleanup challenges

    The Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is developing the scientific basis for risk-based decision making and “breakthrough” approaches to cleaning up the nuclear weapons complex.

    Bioremediation Research (NABIR) provides the understanding of how microbes that naturally exist in soils can stabilize metals and radionuclides. Studies span the range of microbial genetics of all the way to field studies at actual contaminated sites.

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is serving environmental users from around the world by providing the leading edge of computational and experimental capabilities for understanding processes at the molecular level.

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL)is studying the ecological impacts of remediation activities in real time at the Savannah River Site while providing hands-on educational programs at the Site.

    complexation ions with tetramethoxycalix[4]arene of cesium


    Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    Environmental Remediation Sciences: FY03 Budget (thousands of $)

    NABIR$24,720

    EMSP $29,900

    EMSL $38,000 (operations)

    SREL $ 6,800

    Misc. $10,100

    Total $109,500

    Minus ~12M for unfunded Congressional earmarks in FY03!

    Largest program of its kind anywhere!


    Strategic planning for environmental remediation sciences

    Strategic Planning for Environmental Remediation Sciences

    NRC Recommendation:

    “…that DOE develop a strategic vision for its Environmental Quality (EQ) R&D portfolio. This vision should provide the framework for developing the science and technology necessary to address EQ problems that extend beyond the present emphasis of short-term “compliance” and should incorporate the principal of continual improvement.”

    A Strategic Vision for DOE Environmental Quality R&D(National Academy Press, 2001)


    Strategic planning

    Strategic Planning

    • 2 Strategic Planning workshops (July and September, 2002)

      • Involved scientists from all relevant disciplines, other DOE offices, other agencies

      • Used NRC Reports on EM Science needs as a basis

    • Formation of BERAC Subcommittee

      • 1st meeting in April 2003

      • Reviewed Strategic Plan Draft

    • Draft II is on its way!


    Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    Environmental Remediation Sciences: Mission

    Enable scientific advances that help solve currently intractable environmental problems or otherwise provide break-through opportunities for DOE environmental missions, while also contributing to the general advance of the scientific fields involved.


    Environmental remediation sciences goals

    Environmental Remediation Sciences: Goals

    • Provide science to inform decisions about environmental remediation and stewardship

    • Advance scientific foundations that enable innovative remediation technologies and methodologies

    • Synthesize and integrate across disciplines to foster new scientific approaches that match the complexity of the problems


    Ersd characteristics

    ERSD Characteristics

    • Primary focus is on a subset of DOE-EM relevant issues

      • That are currently “intractable”

      • Where science can have the greatest impact

  • Highly interdisciplinary – integrates results from biology, geology, chemistry, ecology, etc.

  • Committed to developing and supporting a suite of field research sites

  • Develop a “toolbox” of characterization and monitoring tools.


  • Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    Environmental Remediation Sciences

    Program Emphasis

    • Improve our understanding of contaminant fate and transport by investigating and linking relevant processes

    • Focus on interdisciplinary hypothesis-driven field studies to address complexity, scaling, and validation of models and lab results

    • Understand nature’s tools for cleaning up the environment — harness the cleanup potential of microorganisms and geochemistry


    Environmental remediation sciences program emphasis continued

    Environmental Remediation SciencesProgram Emphasis (continued)

    • Help develop the next generation of computational and experimental capabilities for understanding contaminant behavior

    • Provide the basis for new characterization and monitoring capabilities

    • Provide the basis for new separations and waste management options


    Collaborating coordinating

    Collaborating/Coordinating

    • Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling

    • National Science and Technology Council committees

    • Collaborations/Joint Research Calls with

      • EPA, NSF, NIEHS…

    • Other BER: Genomes to Life, Ecology, Microbial Genome

    • Other DOE: Environmental Management, Basic Energy Sciences, Advanced Scientific Computing, Yucca Mountain Project


    Environmental remediation sciences berac meeting april 30 2003

    The Office of ScienceProgram Offices and Environmental Capabilities

    Director

    Raymond L. Orbach

    Principal Deputy Director

    James F. Decker

    Deputy Director for Operations

    Milton D. Johnson

    Chief of Staff

    Jeffrey T. Salmon

    Office of Basic

    Energy Sciences

    Associate Director

    Patricia M. Dehmer

    Office of

    High Energy and

    Nuclear Physics

    Associate Director

    S. Peter Rosen

    Office of

    Biological and

    Environmental

    Research

    Associate Director

    Aristides Patrinos

    Office of Fusion

    Energy Sciences

    Associate Director

    N. Anne Davies

    Office of Advanced

    Scientific

    Computing Research

    Associate Director

    C. Edward Oliver

    Geosciences

    Heavy Element Chem.

    Analytical & Separations Chemistry

    User Facilities:

    synchrotron light sources, (nanoscience centers, neutron source)

    Climate Change

    Genomes to Life

    Microbial Research

    Ecology

    Bioremediation

    Low Dose Radiation

    EM Science Program

    User Facility: EMSL

    Computation Initiatives:

    Genomes to Life

    (Contaminant Flow and Transport)


    Programmatic challenges

    Programmatic Challenges

    • Integrating the science across the division programs

    • Fostering interdisciplinary research teams

    • Nurturing truly innovative ideas

    • Getting our science used


    Getting our science used

    Getting our science used

    • Work directly with cleanup staff at sites to identify and collaborate on the field research sites.

    • Work on specific site problems

    • Sponsor frequent technical exchange workshops with sites

    • Develop a strategy to “advertise” our successes.


    Opportunities

    Opportunities

    • to “revolutionize” environmental studies—bringing much-needed rigor and the new tools of genomics, nanoscience, and computing to bear.

    • to have far-reaching impacts on the way environmental issues are approached.

    • to apply to a broader set of problems (e.g. water quality, future energy options, waste minimization, mining and industrial wastes)


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