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The History of Evolutionary Thought. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Ladder of Life 2 types of animals – those w/ blood & those w/o Animals classified by their way of life Plants by structure Observation of various marine life anatomy was remarkably accurate Distinguished whales from dolphins.

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Aristotle 384 322 b c
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

  • Ladder of Life

    • 2 types of animals – those w/ blood & those w/o

  • Animals classified by their way of life

  • Plants by structure

  • Observation of various marine life anatomy was remarkably accurate

  • Distinguished whales from dolphins


  • Carol von Linné (1707 – 1778)

    “Father of Taxonomy”

    • Linnaeus was classifying organisms based on what they looked like.

    • This made it difficult to classify organisms that seemed to share characteristics with both kingdoms that Linnaeus proposed, Plants and Animals.

    • For example, fungi including mold and mushrooms do not move (or do they?) so they seem to be plants but, unlike plants…..?????



    Jean baptiste lamarck 1744 1829
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)

    • His name is associated merely w/ a discredited theory of heredity – he died in obscurity & poverty

    • Darwin & Lyell give him great credit

    • Law of use/disuse

    • Law of acquired characteristics



    Charles darwin 1809 1882
    Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

    • Voyaged around the world 1831-1836

    • Wrote On the Origin of Species which reveals his ideas on Evolution by means of Natural Selection



    Natural selection summarized
    Natural Selection Summarized:

    Darwin’s theory suggests that in a species:

    • There is a tendency towards overproduction

    • Variationexists

    • Variations are inherited

    • Individuals survive in their environments with varying degrees of success

    • Best adapted, survive and pass favorable variation on to next generation

    • In time, great differences arise, until a new species evolved from an old species



    Biological fitness:

    The contribution an individual

    makes to the gene pool

    of the next generation relative

    to contributions of other

    individuals

    Offspring should be fertile


    Alfred wallace 1823 1913
    Alfred Wallace (1823-1913)

    • Studied the way geography limited or facilitated the extension of species range

    • How ecology influenced the shaping of adaptations

    • In 1858, shared with Darwin on the Theory of Evolution by means of Natural Selection



    • The Hardy–Weinberg principle states: populations

    • Both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant or are in equilibrium from generation to generation unless…

    • Disturbing influences happen such as non-random mating, mutations, selection, limited population size, random genetic drift and gene flow.

    • Genetic equilibrium is a basic principle of population genetics.


    The Hardy-Weinberg principle is like a Punnett square for populations, instead of individuals.


    P 2 2pq q 2 1 p q 1
    p populations, instead of individuals.2 + 2pq + q2 = 1; p + q = 1

    Hardy-Weinberg Principle


    Homologous structures
    Homologous Structures populations, instead of individuals.

    • Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues.


    Homologous Structures populations, instead of individuals.


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