The history of evolutionary thought
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The History of Evolutionary Thought. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Ladder of Life 2 types of animals – those w/ blood & those w/o Animals classified by their way of life Plants by structure Observation of various marine life anatomy was remarkably accurate Distinguished whales from dolphins.

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The History of Evolutionary Thought

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The history of evolutionary thought

The History of Evolutionary Thought


Aristotle 384 322 b c

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

  • Ladder of Life

    • 2 types of animals – those w/ blood & those w/o

  • Animals classified by their way of life

  • Plants by structure

  • Observation of various marine life anatomy was remarkably accurate

  • Distinguished whales from dolphins


  • The history of evolutionary thought

    Carol von Linné (1707 – 1778)

    “Father of Taxonomy”

    • Linnaeus was classifying organisms based on what they looked like.

    • This made it difficult to classify organisms that seemed to share characteristics with both kingdoms that Linnaeus proposed, Plants and Animals.

    • For example, fungi including mold and mushrooms do not move (or do they?) so they seem to be plants but, unlike plants…..?????


    The history of evolutionary thought

    Immutable Species???


    Jean baptiste lamarck 1744 1829

    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)

    • His name is associated merely w/ a discredited theory of heredity – he died in obscurity & poverty

    • Darwin & Lyell give him great credit

    • Law of use/disuse

    • Law of acquired characteristics


    Lamarck s theory

    LAMARCK’S THEORY


    Charles darwin 1809 1882

    Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

    • Voyaged around the world 1831-1836

    • Wrote On the Origin of Species which reveals his ideas on Evolution by means of Natural Selection


    According to darwin

    ACCORDING TO DARWIN…


    Natural selection summarized

    Natural Selection Summarized:

    Darwin’s theory suggests that in a species:

    • There is a tendency towards overproduction

    • Variationexists

    • Variations are inherited

    • Individuals survive in their environments with varying degrees of success

    • Best adapted, survive and pass favorable variation on to next generation

    • In time, great differences arise, until a new species evolved from an old species


    What is biological fitness

    What is biological fitness???


    The history of evolutionary thought

    Biological fitness:

    The contribution an individual

    makes to the gene pool

    of the next generation relative

    to contributions of other

    individuals

    Offspring should be fertile


    Alfred wallace 1823 1913

    Alfred Wallace (1823-1913)

    • Studied the way geography limited or facilitated the extension of species range

    • How ecology influenced the shaping of adaptations

    • In 1858, shared with Darwin on the Theory of Evolution by means of Natural Selection


    The history of evolutionary thought

    • Genetic variation exists in sexually reproducing populations

    • Different alleles are available in the population thus producing

    • different phenotypes.


    The history of evolutionary thought

    • The Hardy–Weinberg principle states:

    • Both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant or are in equilibrium from generation to generation unless…

    • Disturbing influences happen such as non-random mating, mutations, selection, limited population size, random genetic drift and gene flow.

    • Genetic equilibrium is a basic principle of population genetics.


    The history of evolutionary thought

    The Hardy-Weinberg principle is like a Punnett square for populations, instead of individuals.


    P 2 2pq q 2 1 p q 1

    p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1; p + q = 1

    Hardy-Weinberg Principle


    Homologous structures

    Homologous Structures

    • Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues.


    The history of evolutionary thought

    Homologous Structures


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