Nuclear power plants
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Nuclear Power Plants. Topic: Environment Student: Natalia Torres ESL-5 Instructor: Lyra Riabov. Outline. Introduction Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are alternative ways to produce electricity

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Nuclear Power Plants

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Nuclear power plants

Nuclear Power Plants

Topic: Environment Student: Natalia Torres

ESL-5 Instructor: Lyra Riabov


Outline

Outline

Introduction

Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are alternative ways to produce electricity

Roots of nuclear Power and Principles of structure of the NPP

Potential Problems

Suggested solutions

Conclusion


Roots of nuclear power

Roots of Nuclear Power

The Industrial Revolution.

First nuclear chain reaction (Enrico Fermi,1942).

First large scale nuclear reactors were built in 1944 (US, Hanford Washington).

Enriched uranium started to be available.


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How does a NPP produce electricity?


Potential problems

Potential Problems

Mining and purifying uranium.

Improperly functioning nuclear power plants.

Spent fuel from nuclear power plants is toxic and not safe.

Transporting nuclear fuel poses some risk.


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Early consequences

Environmental consequences

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster


Nuclear power plants

The chain reaction in the reactor became out of control creating explosions and a fireball which blew off the reactor’s heavy steel and concrete lid.

Radioactive material released.

The immediate results consisted of 31 deaths.

Within 48 hours after the accident those living within 10 km of the Chernobyl station, including the town of Pripyat, were evacuated.

Early consequences


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The effects have been felt all over the northern hemisphere.

Lethal doses: possibility of long term genetic effects (coniferous trees and small mammals).

Environmental Consequences


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Causes

Implications

The Three Island Nuclear Power Plant Accident


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“Most of the radioactivity you are normally exposed to is from natural sources.”

Radioactive Materials


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Myths and facts about Nuclear Power Plants.

Current situation: 17% of global electricity is generated by some 440 nuclear power reactors in 32 countries.

36 units under construction in 14 countries.

Effects on the life globally and in the United States


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  • Nuclear share of electricity: more than 20% in 19 countries.

  • Western Europe: 33% (France: 77%, Belgium: 57%, Sweden: 52%).

  • Five largest producers: USA, France, Japan, Germany and the Russian Federation.


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Generalizations: Cell mutation and Fatal dose (600 R).

Acute Somatic Effects: Acute radio dermatitis.

Delayed Somatic effects: Cancer, leukemia, cataracts, life shortening from organ failure (not directly observed in man), and abortion.

Health Effects


Nuclear power plants

  • Genetic Effects.

  • Critical Organs: Lymphocytes, bone marrow, gastro-intestinal, gonads, and other fast-growing cells. The central nervous system is resistant.


Suggested solutions

Suggested solutions

  • Nuclear Power and Sustainability.

  • Renewable sources of Energy.

  • The debate


References

References

http://www.chernobyl.co.uk/

http://www.soton.ac.uk/

http://encarta.msn.com

http://www.nucleartourist.com/

http://www.nirs.org

http://www.rnw.nl/science/html/chernobyl010425.html


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