aldehydes ketones
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Aldehydes, ketones

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Aldehydes and ketones. Addition reactions Chapter 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 257 Views
  • Uploaded on

Aldehydes, ketones. Required background: Structure of alkenes Nucleophilic substitution S N 1, S N 2 Essential for: 1. Carboxylic aids and their derivatives, lipids 2. Enols, enolates 3. Aminoacids, peptides 4. Carbohydrates and nucleic acids.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Aldehydes and ketones. Addition reactions Chapter 16' - ezra


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

Required background:

Structure of alkenes

Nucleophilic substitution SN1, SN2

Essential for:

1. Carboxylic aids and their derivatives, lipids

2. Enols, enolates

3. Aminoacids, peptides

4. Carbohydrates and nucleic acids

slide3

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

slide5

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

slide7

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

slide8

Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

a.Oxidation of alcohols

b. Friedel-Crafts acylation

c. Hydration of alkynes

d. Ozonolysis of alkynes

e. Cleavage of glycols

Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

slide9

Aldehydes are more reactive, than ketones due to the steric reasons and a larger positive charge on the carbonyl carbon in aldehydes.

Addition to C=O bonds is faster, than addition to C=C bonds due to the higher polarity of the C=O bond, but less favorable thermodynamically due to the stronger C=O bond vs. the C=C bond. Example: Cyanohydrin synthesis

Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

slide10

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

slide13

Acetals and hemiacetals can be formed intramolecularly

Due to the stability of acetals toward bases and nucleophiles, they are often used as

protecting groups

slide14

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

slide17

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

slide19

In esters, enolization is even less favorable due to stabilization of the carbonyl group.

Stabilization of the carbonyl form decreases acidity of the compound

slide20

Stabilization of the double bond (by conjugation) shifts the equilibrium toward the enol.

Enolization, catalyzed by acids

slide21

Outline

1. Structure and physical properties of carbonyl compounds

2. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones

3. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

4. Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group

5. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones

7. Acetals and their use in synthesis

8. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia and primary amines

9. Enoles and enolates

10. Aldol condensation

ad