History the novel
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History & the Novel. Key Timeline, Russia & the Road to Revolution, 1853 – 1918. 1853-56 Crimean war. Ends in Russian defeat. Tsar Alexander II recognises need for reform. 1860s & 70s

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History & the Novel

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History the novel

History & the Novel

Key Timeline,

Russia & the Road to Revolution,

1853 – 1918


History the novel

1853-56

  • Crimean war. Ends in Russian defeat.

  • Tsar Alexander II recognises need for reform.

    1860s & 70s

  • Tsar Alexander II begins wide ranging liberal reform programme, starting with Emancipation of Serfs (1861)

    1880s

  • Assassination of Alexander II. Succession of Alexander III and new repression

    1890s

  • Russia begins Industrialisation under Chief Minister Witte

  • Tsar Nicholas II succeeds his father (1894), bringing reform & repression


History the novel

1904-5

  • Russian Defeat in war with Japan.

  • First Russian Revolution follows

  • Introduction of Duma follows – new elected central assembly

    1906-1912

  • Following criticism of Tsar, Duma has its powers reduced

  • Agricultural reforms under Chief Minister Stolypin

  • Leads to growth of ‘kulaks’ – rural middle class

    1914

  • Outbreak of WWI

    1915-16

  • War creates economic and political crisis in Russia

    1917 February Revolution

  • Tsar forced into abdication by elite led revolt; Replaced by Liberal Provisional Government in loose alliance with Petrograd Soviet


History the novel

1917 March – September

  • March: Soviet Order No.1: - Soviet sets clear limits to its support

  • April: Lenin returns from exile – attacks Provisional Government and its Soviet supporters

  • May: Cabinet reshuffle – brings Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries (SRs) directly into government, SR leader Kerensky becomes Prime Minister

  • June: Military Offensive – fails

  • July: Failed popular uprising – blamed on Bolsheviks

  • August/September: General Kornilov attempts a coup – Kerensky implicated

    1917 October Revolution

  • Bolsheviks take advantage of crisis to take power.

  • At first relatively liberal & allow planned elections to take place

    1918

  • Bolsheviks come second in elections.

  • Trotsky forcibly closes new elected Assembly with help of Red guards, in name of ‘Soviet Power’.

  • Dictatorship and Civil War begins


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