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Biochemical Reactions. The chemical reactions associated with biological processes. Learning Focus. To identify and describe the 4 main types of biochemical reactions: neutralization, oxidation-reduction, condensation, and hydrolysis reactions. What is a biological Rx?.

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Biochemical reactions

Biochemical Reactions

The chemical reactions associated with biological processes


Learning focus
Learning Focus

  • To identify and describe the 4 main types of biochemical reactions:

    • neutralization,

    • oxidation-reduction,

    • condensation, and

    • hydrolysis reactions


What is a biological rx
What is a biological Rx?

  • Any ideas? Generally 3 broad categories…

  • metabolic rx – any reaction in a living system.

  • Anabolic rx – reactions that produce larger molecules.

  • Catabolic rx – reactions that breakdown larger molecules.


1 acid base neutralization rx
1. Acid-Base (neutralization rx)

  • Neutralization Rx is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base (reactants), that results in water and a salt (products)

  • Result

    – the acidic and basic properties of the aqueous solution where the reaction took place are nullified (i.e. cancelled out)


Acid bases review
Acid/Bases review:

  • Review – what is an acid?

    • A substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when it dissolves in H2O

  • What is a base?

    • A substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when it dissolves in H2O

    • Note: a base can also be defined as a substance that accepts or reacts with H+


Ph scale review
pH scale review:

  • Review – what is the pH scale? Take a second to define and describe it.

  • It’s a numerical scale ranging from 0 – 14 that is used to classify aqueous solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral.


What is considered to be normal
What is considered to be normal?

  • The normal pH range of blood is 7.35 – 7.45

    • Given this is blood considered to be acidic or basic (alkaline)?

    • What do you think the consequence is of blood pH falling below 7.0 or above 7.8?

    • Acidosis (7.3 or lower) versus alkalosis (7.5 or higher)

    • (you tube: precision nutrition kitchen tip)


Consequences of ph imbalance
Consequences of pH imbalance

  • With a pH higher or lower than normal range, blood cells will be damaged.

  • Acids can denature or change the shape of proteins, same with heat or high temperature

  • Strong acids and lemon juice can be used to cook fish (cheviche) and eggs

  • Bases make oils and fats to fall apart.

    - e.g. bile in digestion; oven cleaners contain lye, a strong base that dissolve grease and burn fats in ovens


Acid base reactions in living organisms
Acid-base reactions in living organisms

  • What do living cells use to resist changes in pH? (i.e. how do organisms neutralize acidic or basic environments?)

  • Buffers!

    • A substance that minimizes changes in pH by donating or accepting hydrogen ions as needed


Acid base reactions in living organisms1
Acid-base reactions in living organisms

  • Buffers are chemical systems that contain a substance that can donate H ions when they are required and contain a substance that can remove H ions when they are too many in solutions

  • Buffers usually consist of conjugate acid-base pairs in equilibrium

  • Carbonic acid – bicarbonate buffer is important in human extracellular fluid



2. Oxidation-reduction (Redox) Rx ago!

  • reactions involving electron transfer


Redox ago! Reactions

  • Oxidation = chemical reaction where an atom loses electrons

  • Reduction = chemical reaction where an atom gains elections

  • Therefore a REDOX reaction = a chemical reaction that involves the transfer of electrons from on substance to another


Redox reactions
Redox ago! Reactions

  • How to remember what happens?

  • Use mnemonic: LEO GER

    Loss Gain

    Electron Electron

    Oxidation Reduction

LEO the lion says GER


Redox reactions1
Redox ago! Reactions

Reducing Agent – substance that LOSES electrons; it causes the other substance to be reduced

Oxidizing Agent – substances that GAIN electrons; it causes the other substance to be oxidized

e.g. C3H8+ 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O + energy

Combustion of propane


Redox in the cell
Redox in the Cell ago!

Many metabolic processes consist of chains of redox reactions.

A-

B-

C-

D-

D

A

B

C

e.g. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy


3 ago!. Condensation Rx

  • Involved in the assembly of all four types of biological macromolecules (as are Hydrolysis Rx)

    = a chemical rx that results in the formation of a covalent bond between two molecules with the production of a water molecule



3 ago!. Condensation Rx

  • Because the reaction involves a release of water, condensation rx are also called dehydration reactions

  • Always involves the removal of a H atom from the functional group of one monomer (or subunit) and an –OH from the other monomers (or subunits) functional group

  • This type of reaction alwaysabsorbs energy

  • Also considered to be an anabolic reaction = synthesis of molecules


Anabolic rx in nucleic acids
Anabolic Rx in Nucleic Acids ago!

  • bond that forms from the dehydration reaction between 2 (or more) nucleotides is called a phosphodiester linkage;

  • occurs between the –OH group of one nucleotide, and the phosphate group of the next

+ H2O


Anabolic rx in carbs
Anabolic ago!rx in carbs

glucose

fructose

sucrose

  • bond that forms from the dehydration reaction is a glycosidicbond; occurs between an –OH group on each molecule involved in the reaction


Anabolic rx in fats
Anabolic ago!rx in fats

glycerol + 3 fatty acid  fat (triglyceride)


Anabolic rx in fats1
Anabolic ago!rx in fats

  • bond that forms from the dehydration reaction in the creation of a fatty acid is an ester linkage; occur between the –OH group on a glycerol molecule and the –COOH group on a fatty acid


Anabolic rx in proteins
Anabolic Rx in Proteins ago!

  • bond that forms from the dehydration reaction between 2 (or more) Amino acids is called a peptide linkage or bond; occurs between the carboxyl of one AA and the amino group of another


4 ago!. Hydrolysis Rx

  • Involved in the breakdown of macromolecules into their monomers (smaller subunits)

    = a chemical rx that results in the cleavage of a covalent bond with the addition of a water molecule

  • This type of reaction alwaysreleases energy

  • Also considered to be an catabolic reaction = breaking down


Macromolecules what you need to know
Macromolecules: ago!What you need to know!

  • Structure of the basic unit (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) (what are the monomers)

  • How they react to form larger molecules (what are the polymers) (examples)

  • How the larger molecules are broken down into basic units

  • Functions of the molecules in living organisms



Benedict s test
Benedict’s Test ago!

  • testing for reducing sugars

    Benedict’s reagent is used to detect reducing sugars. The blue-coloured, copper-based solution will produce a red to orange precipitate in the presence of a reducing sugar and heat.


Starch test
Starch Test ago!

  • tests for the presence of starch

    Lugol’s iodine is a yellow solution that will turn a dark purple / black colour in the presence of starch molecules.



Biuret s test
Biuret’s ago! Test

  • testing for the presence of proteins

    Biuret’s solution is a blue-coloured, copper-based solution that turns purple in colour in the presence of protein.


Testing for lipds
Testing for ago!Lipds


Sudan test
Sudan Test ago!

  • testing for the presence of lipids

    Sudan dye is a water-insoluble, black-red dye that will stain solutions containing lipids a red colour.


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