Grl introduction
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GRL Introduction. Lin Liu University of Toronto April 2001. Why Goal-Orientation?? van Lamsweerde (ICSE 2000). Systematic derivation of requirements from goals Goals provide rationales for requirements

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GRL Introduction

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Grl introduction

GRL Introduction

Lin Liu

University of Toronto

April 2001


Why goal orientation van lamsweerde icse 2000

Why Goal-Orientation??van Lamsweerde (ICSE 2000)

  • Systematic derivation of requirements from goals

  • Goals provide rationales for requirements

  • Goal refinement structure provides a comprehensible structure for the requirements document

  • Alternative goal refinements and agent assignments allow alternative system proposals to be explored

  • Goal formalization allows refinements to be proved correct and complete.


Where are we

Where Are We??

object-oriented

programming

GRL

KAOS

UCM

SDL

UML

Detailed

design

Architectural

design

Late

requirements

Implementation

[Mylopoulos AOIS’99]


Development world model refers to and reasons about

Development-World modelrefers to and reasons about…

Alt-1

Alt-2

To-be

As-is

Operational-World models


Outline

Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented non-functional requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architectural design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Goals and softgoals in grl

Goals and Softgoals in GRL


Tasks in grl

Tasks in GRL


Goal refinement means ends link

Goal Refinement: Means-ends Link

Task Refinement: Decomposition Link


Softgoal operationalizations contribution relationship

Softgoal Operationalizations: Contribution Relationship

Side-effects to softgoals: Correlation Relationship


Resource in grl

Resource in GRL


Non intentional elements in grl

Non-Intentional Elements in GRL

  • Acting as parameters in GRL intentional elements, i.e., topics of softgoal, “Object” attributes of goal, task and belief

  • Referring to entities of an external model, such as responsibilities in UCM, class/objects in UML class diagram,…


Belief in grl

Convergence of media reduces

cost of ownership

Belief in GRL


Outline1

Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Softgoal operationalization example

Softgoal Operationalization Example


Softgoal operationalization example cont d

Softgoal Operationalization Example(cont’d)


Example cont d

Example (cont’d)


Example cont d1

Example (cont’d)


Outline2

Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Goal model in grl

Goal model in GRL


An original unbounded ucm scenario corresponding to goal call services be supported

An Original unbounded UCM scenario corresponding to Goal “Call Services Be Supported”


Bounded ucm scenarios of solutions reside voicecoder in 1 base station or 2 in switch

Bounded UCM scenarios of Solutions: Reside VoiceCoder in (1) Base Station; or (2) in Switch


Design alternatives their contributions to nfrs

Design Alternatives & Their Contributions to NFRs


Outline3

Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Agent orientation in grl

Agent-Orientation in GRL

  • Actors are semi-autonomous, partially knowable

  • Strategic actors, intentional dependencies

  • Can be considered as goal-holders

“Strategic Dependency” Model

Meeting Scheduling Example


Revealing goals finding alternatives

Revealing goals, finding alternatives

  • Asking “Why”, “How”, “How else”


Scheduling meeting with meeting scheduler

Scheduling meeting …with meeting scheduler

Consider

  • Technology as enabler

  • Networked systems and organizations

  • Increased inter-dependency and vulnerability

  • Limited knowledge and control

  • Openness and uncertainties

  • Cooperation

  • Boundaries, locality, identity


Distributed goal model with meeting scheduler

Distributed Goal Model with Meeting Scheduler

  • SR2


Outline4

Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Goal oriented requirements engineering gore

Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE)

  • GORE is gathering momentum

    • CSD – Feather 87…

    • KAOS – van Lamsweerde, …

    • Inquiry Cycle – Potts, Anton

    • EKD – Bubenko, Rolland, Loucopoulos

    • Win-Win – Boehm

    • NFR – Chung, Mylopoulos, …

      Hopefully, MOMENTUM >>>

  • Z.URN proposal to ITU-T (Nov. 2000)

    • GRL


Goal scenario in re and in architectural design

Goal + scenario in RE and in Architectural Design

  • Krutchen’s 4+1 model of software architecture

  • Software Architecture Analysis Method (SAAM)

  • Van Lamsweerde and Willement

  • CREWS-L’Ecritoire approach of Collete Rolland et al.


Resources regarding grl

Resources regarding GRL

Home of GRL

  • http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/GRL/

    Tool web site

  • http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/OME/

    References:

  • Chung, L., Nixon, B.A., Yu, E.and Mylopoulos, J. Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

  • Yu, E. and Mylopoulos, J. Why Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundations of Software Quality. June 1998, Pisa, Italy. E. Dubois, A.L. Opdahl, K. Pohl, eds. Presses Universitaires de Namur, 1998. pp. 15-22.

    Also at: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~eric


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