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GRL Introduction. Lin Liu University of Toronto April 2001. Why Goal-Orientation?? van Lamsweerde (ICSE 2000). Systematic derivation of requirements from goals Goals provide rationales for requirements

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GRL Introduction

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GRL Introduction

Lin Liu

University of Toronto

April 2001


Why Goal-Orientation??van Lamsweerde (ICSE 2000)

  • Systematic derivation of requirements from goals

  • Goals provide rationales for requirements

  • Goal refinement structure provides a comprehensible structure for the requirements document

  • Alternative goal refinements and agent assignments allow alternative system proposals to be explored

  • Goal formalization allows refinements to be proved correct and complete.


Where Are We??

object-oriented

programming

GRL

KAOS

UCM

SDL

UML

Detailed

design

Architectural

design

Late

requirements

Implementation

[Mylopoulos AOIS’99]


Development-World modelrefers to and reasons about…

Alt-1

Alt-2

To-be

As-is

Operational-World models


Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented non-functional requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architectural design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Goals and Softgoals in GRL


Tasks in GRL


Goal Refinement: Means-ends Link

Task Refinement: Decomposition Link


Softgoal Operationalizations: Contribution Relationship

Side-effects to softgoals: Correlation Relationship


Resource in GRL


Non-Intentional Elements in GRL

  • Acting as parameters in GRL intentional elements, i.e., topics of softgoal, “Object” attributes of goal, task and belief

  • Referring to entities of an external model, such as responsibilities in UCM, class/objects in UML class diagram,…


Convergence of media reduces

cost of ownership

Belief in GRL


Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Softgoal Operationalization Example


Softgoal Operationalization Example(cont’d)


Example (cont’d)


Example (cont’d)


Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Goal model in GRL


An Original unbounded UCM scenario corresponding to Goal “Call Services Be Supported”


Bounded UCM scenarios of Solutions: Reside VoiceCoder in (1) Base Station; or (2) in Switch


Design Alternatives & Their Contributions to NFRs


Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Agent-Orientation in GRL

  • Actors are semi-autonomous, partially knowable

  • Strategic actors, intentional dependencies

  • Can be considered as goal-holders

“Strategic Dependency” Model

Meeting Scheduling Example


Revealing goals, finding alternatives

  • Asking “Why”, “How”, “How else”


Scheduling meeting …with meeting scheduler

Consider

  • Technology as enabler

  • Networked systems and organizations

  • Increased inter-dependency and vulnerability

  • Limited knowledge and control

  • Openness and uncertainties

  • Cooperation

  • Boundaries, locality, identity


Distributed Goal Model with Meeting Scheduler

  • SR2


Outline

1. Goal-oriented modeling concepts in GRL

2. An example goal-oriented requirement analysis process

3. Combined use of goal and scenario from requirement to architecture design

4. Agent-oriented concepts in GRL

5. Related works


Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE)

  • GORE is gathering momentum

    • CSD – Feather 87…

    • KAOS – van Lamsweerde, …

    • Inquiry Cycle – Potts, Anton

    • EKD – Bubenko, Rolland, Loucopoulos

    • Win-Win – Boehm

    • NFR – Chung, Mylopoulos, …

      Hopefully, MOMENTUM >>>

  • Z.URN proposal to ITU-T (Nov. 2000)

    • GRL


Goal + scenario in RE and in Architectural Design

  • Krutchen’s 4+1 model of software architecture

  • Software Architecture Analysis Method (SAAM)

  • Van Lamsweerde and Willement

  • CREWS-L’Ecritoire approach of Collete Rolland et al.


Resources regarding GRL

Home of GRL

  • http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/GRL/

    Tool web site

  • http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/OME/

    References:

  • Chung, L., Nixon, B.A., Yu, E.and Mylopoulos, J. Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

  • Yu, E. and Mylopoulos, J. Why Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundations of Software Quality. June 1998, Pisa, Italy. E. Dubois, A.L. Opdahl, K. Pohl, eds. Presses Universitaires de Namur, 1998. pp. 15-22.

    Also at: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~eric


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