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Joint Research Centre (JRC). The Dioxin/POPs lab of the European Commission - Experiences at the interface between science and policy. 1. Dioxin Workshop, Leon Mexico, 15.April 2008. Gunther Umlauf Rural, Water and Ecosystem Resources Unit RWER

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Joint Research Centre (JRC)

The Dioxin/POPs lab of the European Commission -Experiences at the interface between science and policy

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Dioxin Workshop, Leon Mexico, 15.April 2008

Gunther Umlauf

Rural, Water and Ecosystem Resources Unit RWER

Institute of Environment and Sustainability IES

Joint Research Centre JRC

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Joint Research Centre (JRC)

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Overview

  • What is the JRC – our structure 2 slides

  • Dioxin exposure and sources in the EU 2 slides

  • What is the Commission/JRC doing about Dioxins/POPs? 1 slide overview, showing the link of the Labs with policy making- List of important Dioxin-related EU-Legislation handouts- List of Implementation of Dioxin related international conventions handouts- List of Dioxin related Strategies crosscutting different kinds of policies handouts - List of Dioxin/POPs related studies handouts

  • The Dioxin POPs lab at the JRC 2 slides

  • 3 Selected examples of the Dioxin/POPs lab supporting the EC on the issue of Dioxin and POPs 7 slides + handouts with some more examples

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Joint Research Centre (JRC)

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What is the JRC?

  • A Directorate-General of the European Commission:

  • Providing customer-driven and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies

  • Functioning as a reference centre of science and technologyfor the European Union

  • Serving the common interest of the Member States, while being independent of special interests, whether private or national

www.jrc.ec.europa.eu

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Our Structure: 7 Institutes in 5 Member States

IRMM -Geel, Belgium

Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements

ITU -Karlsruhe, Germany

Institute for Transuranium Elements

IE -Petten, The Netherlands

Institute for Energy

IPSC -Ispra, Italy

Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen

IES -Ispra, Italy

Institute for Environment and Sustainability

IHCP -Ispra, Italy

Institute for Health and Consumer Protection

IPTS -Seville, Spain

Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

~ 2800 staff ~ 300 M€/y budget

(+ 40 M€/y competitive income)

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How high is human exposure to dioxins in the EU?

According to the study on the Compilation of EU Dioxin exposure and health data (1999), the daily intake of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds is still above the levels recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for some parts of the population. Dioxin levels have been decreasing in the recent years in all countries for which data for the last 10 to 15 years are available. On average, exposure fell by 10% per year between the mid-eighties and the mid-nineties.

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Dioxin sources in the EU*

  • Residential combustion (~ 30%)

  • Open burning of waste (backyard burning) (~15%)

  • Wood preservation (~15%)

  • Iron and steel industry (~ 8%)

  • Power production, non-ferrous metals, chemical industry (~ 5% each) * EU -Dioxin Inventory stage I (1995) and stage II (2002)

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What is the Commission* doing about Dioxins/POPs? http://ec.europa.eu/environment/dioxin/index.htm

  • Dioxin related EU-Legislation

  • Implementation of Dioxin related international conventions

  • Dioxin related Strategies crosscutting different kinds of policies

  • Dioxin/POPs related studies

  • Dioxin/POPs related research

  • Support to emergencies in Member States

  • S&T support and capacity building in new Member States or candidate countries (Turkey)

  • Standardization at EU level (Methods e.g. EN1948, preparation of standard reference materials)

* The JRC Dioxin/POPs lab is involved at all levels

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Waste Management

  • Waste Directive 75/442/EEC

  • Hazardous Waste Directive 91/689/EEC

  • Council Decision 2000/532/EC defining what is hazardous

  • Waste Oil Directive 75/439/EEC (PCBs)

  • Council Regulation on shipment of waste 93/259/EC

  • End-of-life Vehicles Directive 2000/53/EC

  • Directive on the Reuse, Recycling and Recovery of Electric Waste 2002/96/EC

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Chemicals – classification, production, and use

  • Dangerous Substance Regulation 67/548/EEC basic regulation for all chemicals including all intentionally produced POPs.

  • Directive 79/117/EEC on pesticide use regulating specifically POPs pesticides

  • Council Directive 85/467/EC on restriction on the marketing of dangerous substances

  • PCB/PCT Directive 96/59/EC on the management of PCB containing equipement

  • Directives 199/45/EC on classification packaging and labeling of hazardous preparations

  • ROHS Directive (202/95/EC on the restriction of certain hazardous substances in electric equipement (PBBs, PBDEs)

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Atmospheric Pollution - Emissions

  • IPPC Directive 96/61/EC laying down permit conditions and monitoring obligations for PCDD/F emissions to air for major activities exceeding a certain threshold capacity.

  • Directives 89/369/EC and 89/429 EEC for existing waste incineration plants.

  • Directive 94/67/EC for the incineration of hazardous waste.

  • Waste incineration Directive 2000/76/EC setting up permit conditions and limit values for air emissions and waste water discharge.

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Water Protection

  • Water Directive 76/464/EC related to organohalogen compound releases to groundwater and limit values for the discharge of biocides

  • Directives 88/347/EC relates to limit values for the discharge of POPs to wastewater.

  • Directive 98/83/EC setting limit values for POPs pesticides in drinking water

  • Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC contains limit values on HCHs and Lindane. Limit values of a number of other POPs like organochlor pesticides, PBDEs as environmental quality standards in surface waters are currently under discussion.

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Food and feed Safety

  • Directives 1986/363/EC, 2001/201/EC, 2001/2375/EC, 2002/69/EC, and 2003/806/EC set limit values for POPs and PCDD/Fs in food and feedstuff.

  • Directive 2002/69/EC defines the method for sampling and performance criteria for methods and analysis for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs

  • Commission Regulation 2006/199/EC sets limit values for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (both in Who TEQ) for Meat and meat products, fish and fishery products, milk and milk products, eggs and oils an fats. The limit values are based on the tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHO TEQ/kg body weight for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs.

    ! Analytical Methods according to Commission regulation EC No 1883/2006 include GC/MS and cell based such as CALUX and kit based bioassays for the screening/monitoring of the presence of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Positive samples have to be re-analysed by a confirmative method using GC-High Resolution MS

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POPs Regulations

  • Council Regulation (EC) No 850/2004, Council Regulation (EC) No 1195/2006 and Council regulation (EC) No 172/2007 on Persistent Organic Pollutants lay down stringent rules on the management of waste containing or consisting of POPs.

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Implementation of Dioxin related international conventions

  • Reduction of emissions of dioxins and other unintentional POPs in the framework of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention

  • Regulation (EC) No 850/2004 on persistent organic pollutants entered into force on 20 May 2004. The Regulation implements the provisions of the Stockholm Convention. Dioxins, furans and PCBs are listed as unintentionally released POPs for which the releases should be continuously and cost-effectively reduced as soon as possible. Each Party to the Stockholm Convention - individual states as well the European Communityas a regional economic integration organization - has to establish an Implementation Plan to show the concrete action that will be taken against the POPs listed in the Convention. The European Community Implementation Plan, which complements the national plans of the EU Member States, was adopted in March

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Dioxin related Strategies crosscutting different kinds of policies

  • To secure better protection of human health and of the environment from the effects of dioxins and PCBs, on 24th October 2001 the Commission adopted a « Communication on a Community Strategy for Dioxins, Furans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls » COM(2001)593. The Communication outlines the problem of dioxins and PCBs, the progress in addressing the problem, the remaining gaps, the basis for Community action and it develops a strategy to reduce the presence of these compounds in the environment, in feed and food.

  • The Commission adopted in 2003 an EU Strategy on Environment and Health , with the aim to reduce diseases caused by environmental factors in Europe. The strategy refers to particulate matter in the air, noiseand ground-level ozone and persistent Environmental pollutants, including Pesticides, endocrine disruptors, dioxins and PCBs. This was followed up by the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 which proposes anIntegrated Information System on Environment and Health as well as an coordinated approach toHuman Biomonitoring between Member States to render the assessment of the environmental impact on human health more efficient.

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Dioxin/POPs related studies

  • Evaluation of the occurrence of dioxins and POPs in wastes and their potential to enter the food chain (pdf ~640K) – investigation of the extent the which the use of contaminated wastes in the production of animal feedstuffs may threaten public health via the food chain, continued by Dioxins and other POPs in by-products, recyclates and wastes and their potential to enter the food chain - Stage II. A general conclusion of the study is that an annual input of up to 10 g WHO-TEQ to European feedingstuffs due to the recovery of wastes, by-products and recyclates might exist. This underlines the need for further actions in the field of the recovery of wastes, by-products and recyclates to reach the general objective of lowering daily intake of POPs for humans.

  • Preparatory Actions in the Field of Dioxins and PCBs - a systematic overview on contamination levels of dioxins and PCBs for important environmental compartments, feedingstuffs and food. Furthermore the study gives an overview on sources, pathways, fate, occurrence levels and human exposure with respect to dioxins, PCBs and relevant brominated substances and discusses causal relations and consequences in the light of the existing knowledge.

  • Study to facilitate the implementation of certain waste related provisions of the Regulation on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - definition of concentration limits for 14 POPs substances and substance classes, including dioxins, above which the POPs content in waste shall be subject to destruction or irreversible transformation so called “low POP content limits” (LPCL)

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Dioxin/POPs related studies

  • Study on the Compilation of EU Dioxin exposure and health data (1999), collecting data from all kind of environmental matrices and human exposure.

  • Dioxin measurement in the European metals industry – investigation of ways of improving the monitoring of emissions from the metals industry, published in October 2005. The results will be used as a background for the upcoming review of the IPPC directive.

  • The European Dioxin Inventory - starting in 1995, Stage one of the project ended in November 1997 with the release of a report that

    • describes the information on dioxin emissions which is available from 17 European Countries;

    • provides an evaluation of these data;

    • estimates the annual emissions of these countries on a comparable basis.

  • Stage two of the inventory comprises a written study, Releases of Dioxins and Furans to land and water in Europe, as well as emission measurement programmes at relevant plants in various countries. The final report on stage two of the project is called the European Dioxin Emission Inventory Stage II.

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Dioxin/POPs related studies related to new MS

  • An inventory of releases to air, water and land has also been made for the new EU Member States, entitled “The enlarged EU".

  • Following the high priority given by the Council the European Commission launched two projects on the issue in the Candidate Countries.

  • The project "Dioxin Emissions in Candidate Countries" lays the foundation for a consistent and harmonised dioxin emission estimate for air, land and water releases in the new EU Member States. The study shows that on a global and per capita basis the amount of dioxins emitted to air in the new Member States is at the same level as in the old Member States. As for the releases to land, the estimated total releases are considerably smaller in the new Member States.

  • The Study "Dioxins and PCBs: Environmental Levels and Human Exposure in Candidate Countries") gives an overview and analysis of available data on environmental levels of dioxins and PCBs as well as related human exposure in Candidate Countries. The final report provides a comprehensive picture of the situation in the new Member States by giving an overview of the levels of dioxins and PCBs in air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, wildlife, food and feed and human tissue. It further gives information on the extent of monitoring and research in these countries, their legislation, administrative structures, capacities, priorities, planning etc.

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The Dioxin/POPs labs at the JRC

  • 2 HRGC/HRMS (Autospec Ultima, and Thermo DFS) plus several low res. instruments

  • Automated clean-up system Power prep P6

  • Sampling in ambient air, deposition, in stack, large vol. and deep water samples, soil, sediments, biota…

  • Routine: One extract  19 PAHs, 29 Cl-pesticides, 7 marker-PCBs, 18 PBDEs, 17 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs & homologue classes, 12 dioxin-like PCBs

  • Quantification based on C13 labeled surrogates

  • Each batch of samples is accompanied by the analysis of a standard reference material

  • Funding: institutional + 20 % third party

  • Running costs (consumables, service contracts, replacement of instruments, campaigns) approx xxx Euro + xxx Euro deduction of instruments p.a.

  • 3 technical staff in the labs + staff for campaigns, Post Docs etc.

  • Approx. 400 samples per year, depending on the matrix!

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Extract

Soxhlet

Silica-neutral

Silica (H2SO4)-Aluminia-Carbon

GC-MS Thermo-DSQ

POPs by MS and Isotope Dilution

ASE

10%

90%

GC-HRMS Autospec UltimaThermo-DFS

PAHs

OCP

PCDD/Fs

PCBs

PBDEs

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……selected examples of the Dioxin/POPs lab supporting the EC on the issue of Dioxin and POPs

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Example 1: Emergency – The Belgian chicken problem in 1999 only handout

Catherine Pirard& Edwin De Pauw Environment InternationalVolume 32, Issue 4, May 2006

  • In 1999, about 50 kg PCBs and 1 g dioxins were introduced into the animal food chain through approximately 1,500 tons of animal feed containing 60 tons of contaminated fat from a Belgian fat-melting company

  • The source of the contamination was transformer oil with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins that was used to manufacture animal feed.

  • In May Belgian authorities ordered the withdrawal from sale of Belgian poultry and eggs; other European countries and Russia followed suit.

  • In June , the European Community ordered the destruction of all food items containing >2% egg product and food containing chicken produced from January 15 to June 1 from infected farms.

  • In this context the JRC labs analysed in August ad hoc 300 suspected samples from Russia.

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Example 2: Support to Member States in disaster management – The Elbe flood 2002

  • In 2002 huge areas of Czech republic and Germany were flooded

  • Several dikes broke and large areas containing contaminated sites and chemical industry were affected.

  • Particular concern was attributed to chlorine-chemistry sites in Czech Republic and the area around Bitterfeld in Germany with high historic PCDD/F contamination.

Image from NASA

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Example 2ff: – The Elbe flood 2002

  • The JRC was asked by the German authorities to clarify the level of PCDD/F contamination of the flooded areas in order to launch appropriate recommendations regarding the land use.

  • Particular concern was attributed to flooded chlorine-chemistry sites in Czech republic and the area around Bitterfeld in Germany with high historic PCDD/F contamination.

  • The JRC executed a campaign aiming at 1) evaluating the levels of PCDD/Fs in the flooded soils2) check whether the contamination was due to the flooding3) identify type and location of the sources

    JRC Results revealed that all levels behind broken dikes were within the German limits no cross border contamination from Czech republic occurred high levels on the flood plains came from historic contamination along a tributary and were not caused by the 2002 flooding PCDD/F patterns in soils and sediments identified historic metallurgic processes as a source of PCDD/Fs

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Example 2ff: – The Elbe flood 2002

behind the dikes

Riverside the dikes

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only handout – The Elbe flood 2002

Example 4: Research supporting legislation – The revision of the sewage sludge Directive

Background:

  • The Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the use of sewage sludge in agriculture and to regulate its use in a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man.

  • The Directive specifies rules for the sampling and analysis of pollutants in sludges.

  • DG Environment posed the question to the JRC whether or not PCDD/Fs should be included in the list of monitored substances (The opinion of the Member states was controversy)

    JRC Action:

  • Analyses of a 40-years time series of sewage sludge amended soils compared to soils without SSL treatment

  • our results revealed that although the PCDD/F levels were elevated in the SSL treated soils, concentrations are well below risk levels and are stable or even decreasing since the mid 70ties

     as a consequence PCDD/Fs were not included in the list of compounds to be monitored

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only handout – The Elbe flood 2002

Example 4 ff:

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16 – The Elbe flood 2002

14

12

10

8

PCDD/Fs in WHO-TEQ (pg/g)

6

4

2

0

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

MINERAL FERTILIZER

SEWAGE SLUDGE

Example 4 ff:

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PCDD/Fs in top soils amended with mineral fertiliser and SSL

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5 – The Elbe flood 2002

4.5

4

3.5

3

coplanar-PCBs in WHO-TEQ (pg/g)

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

MINERAL FERTILIZER

SEWAGE SLUDGE

Example 4 ff:

only handout

Coplanar PCBs in top soils amended with mineral fertiliser and SSL

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only handout – The Elbe flood 2002

Example 5: Development of EU wide monitoring concepts for assessing the status of environmental pollution and for the implementation monitoring of Dioxin/POPs related legislation

  • EU-wide surface water monitoring: 100 rivers throughout EU analysed for emerging POPs. Executed in the context of the Water Framework Directive and the related Chemical Monitoring obligations of the Member States

  • EU wide lipid monitoring : 200 Butter samples under analysis. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of POPs into the foodchain. Calibration with ambient air data from EMEOP and UNEP POPs monitoring stations.

  • EU-wide Sewage Sludge monitoring in preparation. screening for POPs and emerging POPs in the context of soils protection and the revision of the SSL Directive

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Example 6: Executing targeted campaigns in new Member states with no appropriate S&T infrastructure available. Poland 2002 and 2005

Objective

  • Identification of PCDD/F emission sources via fingerprints in ambient air of well defined sites.

  • Verification of emission factors for domestic heating to improve the EU-PCDD/F emission inventory

    Action: 2 summer/winter campaigns on ambient air comparing rural, industrial and city center areas

    Results

     High PCDD/Fs emissions in wintertime are due to residential heating with coal.

     Nearby metallurgic industry affects Krakow air only during summertime and to a low extent.

     EU Emission inventory was adapted with the PCDD/F emission factors obtained by inverse modelling of the emissions based on our ambient air data.

  • .

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Example 6ff: states with no appropriate S&T infrastructure available.

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Example 7: supporting the European Commission on issues of Enlargement – Dioxins in the new MS

There was concern at the EC level about the PCDD/F and POPs levels in the 10 new Member states that entered the EU in 2004

Apart from measurement campaigns and knowledge transfer to local partners in the MS, the JRC proposed and coordinated together with DG Environment two literature studies collecting the available information, which demonstrated that the exposure and environmental level of Dioxins and PCBs were at the lower range of the old MS

The project "Dioxin Emissions in Candidate Countries" lays the foundation for a harmonised dioxin emission estimate for air, land and water releases in the new EU Member States. The study shows that on a global and per capita basis the amount of dioxins emitted to air in the new Member States is at the same level as in the old Member States. As for the releases to land, the estimated total releases are considerably smaller in the new Member States.

 The second project "Dioxins and PCBs: Environmental Levels and Human Exposure in Candidate Countries" provided a comprehensive picture of the situation in the new Member States by giving an overview of the levels of dioxins and PCBs in air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, wildlife, food and feed and human tissue. It further gives information on the extent of monitoring and research in these countries, their legislation, administrative structures, capacities, priorities, planning etc. In the last chapter the results of the study are summed up in conclusions and recommendations.

  • .

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Example 7ff: Enlargement – Dioxins in the new MS

European comparison of PCDD/F and PCB levels in Human milk (2001/2002)

Van Leuwen, R. Malish 2002 "WHO exposure study on the levels of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in Human Milk" 3rd round

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Thank you for your kind attention Enlargement – Dioxins in the new MS

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