Joint Research Centre (JRC). The Dioxin/POPs lab of the European Commission - Experiences at the interface between science and policy. 1. Dioxin Workshop, Leon Mexico, 15.April 2008. Gunther Umlauf Rural, Water and Ecosystem Resources Unit RWER
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Dioxin Workshop, Leon Mexico, 15.April 2008
Rural, Water and Ecosystem Resources Unit RWER
Institute of Environment and Sustainability IES
Joint Research Centre JRC
What is the JRC?
IRMM -Geel, Belgium
Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements
ITU -Karlsruhe, Germany
Institute for Transuranium Elements
IE -Petten, The Netherlands
Institute for Energy
IPSC -Ispra, Italy
Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen
IES -Ispra, Italy
Institute for Environment and Sustainability
IHCP -Ispra, Italy
Institute for Health and Consumer Protection
IPTS -Seville, Spain
Institute for Prospective Technological Studies
~ 2800 staff ~ 300 M€/y budget
(+ 40 M€/y competitive income)
According to the study on the Compilation of EU Dioxin exposure and health data (1999), the daily intake of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds is still above the levels recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for some parts of the population. Dioxin levels have been decreasing in the recent years in all countries for which data for the last 10 to 15 years are available. On average, exposure fell by 10% per year between the mid-eighties and the mid-nineties.
* The JRC Dioxin/POPs lab is involved at all levels
! Analytical Methods according to Commission regulation EC No 1883/2006 include GC/MS and cell based such as CALUX and kit based bioassays for the screening/monitoring of the presence of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs.
Positive samples have to be re-analysed by a confirmative method using GC-High Resolution MS
POPs by MS and Isotope Dilution
GC-HRMS Autospec UltimaThermo-DFS
……selected examples of the Dioxin/POPs lab supporting the EC on the issue of Dioxin and POPs
Catherine Pirard& Edwin De Pauw Environment InternationalVolume 32, Issue 4, May 2006
Image from NASA
JRC Results revealed that all levels behind broken dikes were within the German limits no cross border contamination from Czech republic occurred high levels on the flood plains came from historic contamination along a tributary and were not caused by the 2002 flooding PCDD/F patterns in soils and sediments identified historic metallurgic processes as a source of PCDD/Fs
Example 2ff: – The Elbe flood 2002
behind the dikes
Riverside the dikes
only handout – The Elbe flood 2002Example 4: Research supporting legislation – The revision of the sewage sludge Directive
as a consequence PCDD/Fs were not included in the list of compounds to be monitored
only handout – The Elbe flood 2002Example 4 ff:
16 – The Elbe flood 2002
PCDD/Fs in WHO-TEQ (pg/g)
SEWAGE SLUDGEExample 4 ff:
PCDD/Fs in top soils amended with mineral fertiliser and SSL
5 – The Elbe flood 2002
coplanar-PCBs in WHO-TEQ (pg/g)
SEWAGE SLUDGEExample 4 ff:
Coplanar PCBs in top soils amended with mineral fertiliser and SSL
only handout – The Elbe flood 2002
Example 5: Development of EU wide monitoring concepts for assessing the status of environmental pollution and for the implementation monitoring of Dioxin/POPs related legislation
Action: 2 summer/winter campaigns on ambient air comparing rural, industrial and city center areas
High PCDD/Fs emissions in wintertime are due to residential heating with coal.
Nearby metallurgic industry affects Krakow air only during summertime and to a low extent.
EU Emission inventory was adapted with the PCDD/F emission factors obtained by inverse modelling of the emissions based on our ambient air data.
There was concern at the EC level about the PCDD/F and POPs levels in the 10 new Member states that entered the EU in 2004
Apart from measurement campaigns and knowledge transfer to local partners in the MS, the JRC proposed and coordinated together with DG Environment two literature studies collecting the available information, which demonstrated that the exposure and environmental level of Dioxins and PCBs were at the lower range of the old MS
The project "Dioxin Emissions in Candidate Countries" lays the foundation for a harmonised dioxin emission estimate for air, land and water releases in the new EU Member States. The study shows that on a global and per capita basis the amount of dioxins emitted to air in the new Member States is at the same level as in the old Member States. As for the releases to land, the estimated total releases are considerably smaller in the new Member States.
The second project "Dioxins and PCBs: Environmental Levels and Human Exposure in Candidate Countries" provided a comprehensive picture of the situation in the new Member States by giving an overview of the levels of dioxins and PCBs in air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, wildlife, food and feed and human tissue. It further gives information on the extent of monitoring and research in these countries, their legislation, administrative structures, capacities, priorities, planning etc. In the last chapter the results of the study are summed up in conclusions and recommendations.
Example 7ff: Enlargement – Dioxins in the new MS
European comparison of PCDD/F and PCB levels in Human milk (2001/2002)
Van Leuwen, R. Malish 2002 "WHO exposure study on the levels of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in Human Milk" 3rd round
Thank you for your kind attention Enlargement – Dioxins in the new MS