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Problems of Motorization in Indonesia. Traffic CongestionTraffic AccidentA deteriorating urban environmentConflict between motorized and non-motorized transportFailure of public transport to supply the poor in a non-subsidized commercial marketSuburbanization and urban sprawlEnergy conservatio
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1. Sustainable Transportation, Transport Supply Management (TSM) & Transport Demand Management (TDM)

2. Problems of Motorization in Indonesia Traffic Congestion Traffic Accident A deteriorating urban environment Conflict between motorized and non-motorized transport Failure of public transport to supply the poor in a non-subsidized commercial market Suburbanization and urban sprawl Energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emission

3. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

4. PARADIGM SHIFT IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING The difficulty of providing enough mobility which people wanted even with all the serious efforts in the past decades.

5. Why Change Paradigms? Our transportation system provides many benefits, but it also causes many problems. It serves non-drivers poorly. It distributes benefits and cost inequitably It is financially burdensome to households, governments and businesses.

6. Why Change Paradigms? It is increasingly inefficient due to traffic congestion and dispersed land use. It is a major cause of death and disability. It contradicts environmental and quality of life objectives. It relies on non-renewable resources that may become scarce in the future.

7. Why Change Paradigms? A paradigm refers to how people think about problems and develop solutions. ?Work smarter, not harder? ?Think outside the box? Paradigm shifts needed to achieve more sustainable transport.

8. Transportasi Berkelanjutan (Sustainable Transport) Center for Sustainable Development (1997) Sistem transportasi yang berkelanjutan sebagai suatu sistem yang menyediakan akses terhadap kebutuhan dasar individu atau masyarakat secara aman dan dalam cara yang tetap konsisten dengan kesehatan manusia dan ekosistem, dan dengan keadilan masyarakat saat ini dan masa datang.

9. What is Sustainable Transportation? Sustainable transportation requires using each mode for what it does best, which typically means greater reliance on non-motorized for local travel, increased use of public transit in urban areas, a reduction (but not elimination) of personal automobiles use (World Bank, 1996).

10. Transportasi Berkelanjutan (Sustainable Transport) (lanjutan) Selain itu, harus juga terjangkau secara finansial, beroperasi secara efisien, penyediaan alternatif pilihan moda, dan mendukung laju perkembangan ekonomi.

11. Transportasi Berkelanjutan (Sustainable Transport) (lanjutan) Membatasi emisi dan buangan sesuai dengan kemampuan absorbsi alam, meminimumkan penggunaan energi dari sumber yang tak terbarukan, menggunakan komponen yang terdaur ulang, dan meminimumkan penggunaan lahan serta memproduksi polusi suara sekecil mungkin.

12. Sustainable Transportation Strategies are those that meet the basic mobility needs of all and be sustained into the foreseeable future without destruction of the local or planetary resource base

13. Sustainable Transportation Require the balanced harmonious balancing of three elements (3E ? Economics, Environment, and Equity) mobility is to be pursued in a manner consistent with long-term environmental protection and social fairness (other variant is 3P ? Poverty, Population, and Pollution).

14. Sustainable Transportation

15. meet the demand for mobility optimize use of resources improve environmental quality promote social harmony increase level of safety realize the virtuous cycle of society, economy, mobility and environment. Objectives of Sustainable Urban Transportation

16. PARADIGM SHIFT IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING Conventional urban transport planners intended to accommodate increasing transport demands with new constructions and major improvements of transport facilities, and also with efficient use of existing infrastructure through various traffic engineering measures (i.e. Traffic Management)

17. PARADIGM SHIFT IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING This demand-following type approach was found to be effective for some time, but as motorization and further urbanization proceeded this approach has become ineffective and difficult to pursue both financially and politically.

18. The Vicious Circle of Congestion

19. PARADIGM SHIFT IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING Professor P. Goodwin referred to the underlying changes of transport policy as a ?PREDICT and PROVIDE? approach to a ?PREDICT and PREVENT? approach.

20. URBAN TRANSPORT POLICY OPTIONS

21. Transportation Supply Management

22. TSM vs TDM Transportation Supply Management (TSM): TSM measures to enhance capacity and throughput, and traffic flow and operations TSM measures to restrain traffic flow and throughput Transportation Demand Management (TDM): include a variety of measures to reduce individual transport and change transport demand types.

23. Transport Supply Management Transportation supply management strategies maintain or improve safety for all users, defer the need for major infrastructure investments, provide the best possible level of service, and minimize the impacts of transportation activities on community livability.

24. Transport Supply Management Wide range of Transport Supply Management strategies also include: make the best use of its facilities, networks and services, both to maximize their people-moving capacity and to reduce the costs of their operation

25. Down?s Law (1962) or Down?s Triple Convergence (1992) New highway construction along a traffic corridor reduces travel impedance, but it also induces traffic from other corridors and other mode, often resulting in return to previous congestion levels. Moreover, latent demand created by the previous shortage of road capacity also surfaces and swamps the new highway capacity.

26. CONGESTION REDUCING MEASURES SUPPLY SIDE (TSM) Efficient Use of Existing Facilities Increase Supply DEMAND SIDE (TDM) Manage Existing Demand Control Demand Growth

27. EVALUATION OF MEASURES BY CATEGORY Measures that reduce congestion by managing the existing supply are rated above average in effectiveness and below average in cost and ease of implementation.

28. EVALUATION OF MEASURES BY CATEGORY Measures that reduce congestion by adding to the supply are rated the most effective; however, they are also rated the most expensive to implement or operate and the most difficult to implement.

29. Dealing with Traffic Congestion Managing Road Space Supply Managing existing street space more efficiently to maximize available capacity Construct new streets and roads to add more capacity

30. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Supply Side) Traffic Management Improvement of Alternative Modes Integrated Multi-Mode Transport System Transportation Infrastructure Development New Technology

31. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Supply Side) Traffic Management ~ Efficient use via traffic eng. Measures Improvement of Alternative Modes ~ Public transportation; ~ Para-transit; ~ Bicycle/walking.

32. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Supply Side) Integrated Multi-Mode Transport System ~ Park and Ride facilities; ~ Kiss and Ride facilities.

33. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Supply Side) Transportation Infrastructure Development ~ Functional road / public transportation network; ~ High quality / capacity system ? urban rail; ~ Ring road / bypass.

34. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Supply Side) New Technology ~ Intelligent Transportation System; ~ Low emission vehicle; ~ New underground delivery system.

35. Peningkatan Prasarana Transportasi di Indonesia (Tamin, 2000) Pembangunan Jalan Baru Peningkatan Kapasitas Prasarana Rekayasa & Manajemen Lalulintas Kebijakan Perparkiran Prioritas Angkutan Umum

36. Pembangunan Jalan Baru Jalan Bebas Hambatan (TOL) bandara. Jalan Bebas Hambatan (TOL) di dalam kota [Tol Aloha ? Perak] Jalan Lingkar Luar [jalan di depan Galaxy Mall] Jalan Penghubung Baru, menghubungkan dua zona yang sangat tinggi lalulintasnya

37. Peningkatan Kapasitas Prasarana Pelebaran dan perbaikan geometrik persimpangan Pembuatan persimpangan tidak sebidang [A. Yani ? Jemurandayani] Pembangunan jalan terobosan baru, antar wilayah administrasi Pembuatan jembatan penyeberangan

38. Rekayasa & Manajemen Lalulintas Perbaikan Sistem Lampu Lalulintas & Sistem Jaringan Jalan Sistem Lampu Lalulintas terisolasi dan terkoordinasi (Area Traffic Control System/ATCS)

39. Rekayasa & Manajemen Lalulintas Perbaikan perencanaan sistem jaringan jalan yang ada yang menunjang Sistem Angkutan Umum Transportasi Perkotaan Terpadu (SAUTPT) ? KA Komuter SUSI, SULAM, dlsb Penerapan Manajemen Transportasi (parkir, pedestrian, busway/buslane, traffic restraint).

40. Rekayasa & Manajemen Lalulintas Kebijakan Perparkiran Pembatasan tempat parkir di badan jalan Fasilitas parkir di luar daerah (park and ride) Pengaturan biaya parkir Denda pelanggaran parkir

41. Rekayasa & Manajemen Lalulintas Prioritas Angkutan Umum Perbaikan operasi pelayanan ?headway, kenyamanan, keamanan, dlsb. Perbaikan saran penunjang jalan ? halte Jalur khusus bus ? buslane, busway Prioritas bus di persimpangan dengan lalulintas Kemudahan pejalan kaki.

42. CONTRA FLOW

43. Transport Demand Management

44. Reframing the Transportation Question If you ask people, ?Do you think that traffic congestion is a serious problem that deserves significant investment?? most would probably answer yes.

45. Reframing the Transportation Question If you ask them, ?Would you rather invest in road capacity expansion, or use lifestyle changes such as increased urban density and more use of walking, bicycling, car pooling and public transport to solve congestion problems?? A smaller majority would probably choose the road improvement option. These are essentially how choices are framed by conventional transportation plans.

46. Siklus Ketergantungan Terhadap Mobil Pribadi (OTE, 2005)

47. Factors Contributing to the Growth of Driving Source: Texas Transport InstituteSource: Texas Transport Institute

48. CONGESTION REDUCING MEASURES SUPPLY SIDE (TSM) Efficient Use of Existing Facilities Increase Supply DEMAND SIDE (TDM) Manage Existing Demand Control Demand Growth

49. ACTIVITY SYSTEM (Demand Side) Transportation Demand Management Land Use / Urban Planning Regional / National Development Policy Industrial / Labor Policy Social Policy

50. ACTIVITY SYSTEM (Demand Side) Transportation Demand Management ~ Travel reduction; ~ Peak spreading / reduction; ~ Modal shift ? reduction of car / truck use eg. road pricing, telecommuting, car/van pooling, car sharing, etc.

51. Service Attributes of Urban Transportation Modes Source: adapted from R. Tolley and B. Turton (1995), p. 63. Source: adapted from R. Tolley and B. Turton (1995), p. 63.

52. Modal Split for Global Cities, 1995 Source: KENWORTHY, J. and LAUBE, F.B. (2001): The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport. International Union (Association) of Public Transport, Brussels, Belgium and ISTP, Perth, Western Australia (CD-ROM publication). April 16, p. 10.Source: KENWORTHY, J. and LAUBE, F.B. (2001): The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport. International Union (Association) of Public Transport, Brussels, Belgium and ISTP, Perth, Western Australia (CD-ROM publication). April 16, p. 10.

53. Major Targets of TDM Measures Reduction of total movement and travel through moderation of activities which generate travel; Reduction of vehicle traffic through modal change and efficient use of motor vehicles; De-concentration of traffic over time and space;

54. ACTIVITY SYSTEM (Demand Side) Land Use / Urban Planning ~ Growth management; ~ Compact city; ~ Intensive development with mixed uses; ~ Transit-Oriented-Development.

55. ACTIVITY SYSTEM (Demand Side) Regional / National Development Policy ~ Development of secondary cities Industrial / Labor Policy ~ Work/Business style; ~ Production/Distribution process. Social Policy ~ Life style; ~ Leisure.

56. Dealing with Traffic Congestion Managing Transport Demand (TDM) Controls on Vehicle Ownership Vehicle Ownership Taxation Vehicle Quotas Garaging Requirements Controls on Vehicle Usage Non-pricing Access Controls Basic Pricing On-street Parking Control

57. Park and Bus-Ride Reduction of total movement and travel through moderation of activities which generate travel; Reduction of vehicle traffic through modal change and efficient use of motor vehicles; De-concentration of traffic over time and space;

58. Options for Bus Transport Traffic Management and Bus Operations Integrated Busways and Urban Development Public Transport Financing: Fare Levels and Subsidies.

59. Conclusions Road transport demand will always exceed the supply of road space, no matter how well managed and how efficiently used. Municipalities have no alternatives but to consider ways of controlling and managing the demand for road space.

60. Conclusions Non-pricing access controls have their place in protecting sensitive areas, or in better allocating road space among road users. They should be imposed after careful study to be sure that all the costs.

61. Conclusions Higher fuel taxes directly affect the cost of using vehicles and thereby reducing usage, and tend to encourage the use of smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles. European and Japanese levels of gasoline taxation may be a more appropriate benchmark for fuel taxation in Indonesia than the level in the United States.

62. Conclusions Effective traffic management could greatly reduce the effects of congestion on bus operation. Bus transport that can accommodate the demand for accessibility most efficiently should receive priority.

63. Conclusions Busways can be used to create a new form of city structure in medium-size cities. The busway can form the urban axis of high-density development corridors that radiate from the city center. Efficient busways system could make less fuel consumption per head, even though car ownership per head became very high.

64. Conclusions A key element in the provision of adequate and sustainable bus service is the financial viability of the system. It is considered necessary to subsidize bus transport as a way of assisting the lower-income segments of the population and encourage public transport use.


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