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Renewable Energy Chapter 18. Advanced Placement Environmental Science. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt. Energy Efficiency.

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slide1

Renewable EnergyChapter 18

Advanced Placement Environmental Science

slide2

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

energy efficiency
Energy Efficiency
  • Increasing energy efficiency of common devices has economic and environmental advantages
    • Reducing oil imports
    • Prolonging fossil fuel supplies
    • Reducing pollution and environmental degradation
    • Saving money
    • Buys time to develop new technology
    • Creating jobs
slide4

Efficiency of Some Common Devices

Device Efficiency (%)

  • Dry-cell flashlight battery 90
  • Home gas furnace 85
  • Storage battery 70
  • Home oil furnace 65
  • Small electric motor 62
  • Steam power plant 38
  • Diesel engine 38
  • High-intensity lamp 32
  • Automobile engine 25
  • Fluorescent lamp 22
  • Incandescent lamp 4
slide5

Energy Efficiency

percentage of energy input that does useful work in an energy conversion system

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

ways to improve energy efficiency
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the United States leveled off or declined
    • Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny fraction of car sales
    • Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales are expected to increase
    • Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be available within a few years
    • Electric scooters and electric bicycles are short-range transportation alternatives
slide7

Energy use of various types of transportation

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

ways to improve energy efficiency1
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Superinsulated house is more expensive than a conventional house, but energy savings pay back the extra cost
  • Strawbale houses have the additional advantage of using an annually renewable agricultural residue, thus slowing deforestation
ways to improve energy efficiency2
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Existing homes can be made more energy efficient
    • adding insulation
    • plugging leaks
    • installing energy-saving windows
    • wrapping water heaters
    • installing tankless models
    • buying energy-efficient appliances and lights
slide10

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

solar energy
Solar Energy
  • Buildings can be heated
    • passive solar heating system
    • active solar heating system
  • Solar thermal systems are new technologies that collect and transform solar energy into heat that can be used directly or converted to electricity
  • Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy directly into electricity
slide12

Suitability of Solar Usage

best when more than 60% of daylight hours sunny

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

slide13

Solar Heating

Passive system:

Absorbs & stores heat from the sun directly within a structure

Active system:

Collectors absorb solar energy, a pump supplies part of abuildings heating or water heating needs.

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

solar domestic hot water sdhw
Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW)
  • An open circuit hot water system heats the domestic water directly on the roof of the building
  • The water flows from the heat collector into the hot water tank to be used in the house
  • Integration of solar energy conservation in homes can reduce energy consumption by 75-90%.
        • www.iea-shc.org

www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

slide16

Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells

Provides electricity for buildings

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

inside the pv cell
Inside the PV cell
  • PV cells are made from silicon alloys
  • PV module
    • 1cm by 10cm cells
    • 36 cells connected

www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

solar thermal techniques
Solar Thermal Techniques

SolarTwo

www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

heliostats
Heliostats
  • Heliostats provide concentrated sunlight to the power tower
  • The reflecting mirrors follow the sun along its daily trajectory

www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

power tower
Power Tower
  • Sunlight from mirrors are reflected to fixed receiver in power tower
  • Fluid transfers the absorbed solar heat into the power block
  • Used to heat a steam generator

Solar One

www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

solar hydrogen revolution
Solar-Hydrogen Revolution
  • Splitting water can produce H2 gas
  • If scientists and engineers can learn how to use forms of solar energy to decompose water cheaply, they will set in motion a solar-hydrogen revolution
  • Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could power vehicles and appliances
slide25

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

history of hydroelectric
History of Hydroelectric
  • B.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000 years ago
  • 1775 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded, with establishment of Chief Engineer for the Continental Army
  • 1880 - Michigan\'s Grand Rapids Electric Light and Power Company, generating electricity by dynamo, belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps.

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

history of hydroelectric1
History of Hydroelectric
  • By 1940 - 40% of electrical generation was hydropower
  • Between 1921 and 1940 - conventional capacity in the U.S. tripled; almost tripled again between 1940 and 1980
  • Currently - about 10% of U.S. electricity comes from hydropower.

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

turbine technologies
Turbine Technologies
  • Reaction
    • fully immersed in fluid
    • shape of blades produces rotation

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

slide31

Tidal Power Plant

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

slide32

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

rotary windmill
Rotary Windmill

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

slide34

Vertical Blades

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

energy from wind
Energy from Wind
  • Production of electricity and hydrogen gas by wind farms is expected to increase
  • Western Europe currently leads in the development of wind power
  • Land used for wind farms also can be used for ranching or crops and most profits stay in local communities
    • North Dakota
optimization
Optimization
  • Low Torque – Rapid Speed
    • good for electrical generation
  • High Torque – Slow Speed
    • good for pumping water
  • Small generator
    • low wind speeds
    • captures small amount of energy
  • Large generator
    • high wind speeds
    • may not turn at low speeds

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

slide39

Source: American Wind Energy Association

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

slide41

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

energy from biomass
Energy from Biomass
  • In the developing world, most people heat homes and cook by burning wood or charcoal
  • Plant materials and animal wastes also can be converted into biofuels,
    • Biogas
    • Liquid ethanol
    • Liquid methanol
  • Urban wastes can be burned in incinerators to produce electricity and heat

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

slide43

Types of Biomass Fuel

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

slide44

Biorefinery

  • Fuels:
  • Ethanol
  • Renewable Diesel
  • Methanol
  • Hydrogen
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Products
  • Plastics
  • Foams
  • Solvents
  • Coatings
  • Chemical Intermediates
  • Phenolics
  • Adhesives
  • Fatty acids
  • Acetic Acid
  • Carbon black
  • Paints
  • Dyes, Pigments, and Ink
  • Detergents
  • Etc.

Conversion

Processes

  • Biomass
  • Feedstock
  • Trees
  • Forest Residues
  • Grasses
  • Agricultural Crops
  • Agricultural Residues
  • Animal Wastes
  • Municipal Solid Waste
  • Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation
  • Enzymatic Fermentation
  • - Gas/liquid Fermentation
  • - Thermochemical Processes
  • - Gasification/Pyrolysis
  • - Combustion
  • - Co-firing

www.sc.doe.gov/bes/besac/BESACGarman08-02-01.ppt

slide46

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy
  • Geothermal energy can be used to heat buildings and to produce electricity
  • Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if heat is removed faster than natural processes renew it, but the potential supply is vast
technology
Technology
  • Geothermal Heat Pumps
    • shallow ground energy
  • Direct-Use
    • hot water can be piped to facilities
  • Power Plants
    • steam and hot water drive turbines
      • dry steam plants
      • flash steam plants
      • binary cycle plants

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

dry steam power plants
Dry Steam Power Plants
  • Hydrothermal fluids are primarily steam
    • Steam goes directly to turbine
    • No fossil fuels

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

flash steam power plant
Flash Steam Power Plant
  • Fluids above 200 degrees Celsius
    • Fluid is sprayed into tank at lower pressure
    • Fluid rapidly vaporizes
    • Steam drives turbine

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

binary cycle power plant
Binary Cycle Power Plant
  • Cooler water (below 200 degrees Celsius)
    • Hot thermal fluid and a second fluid pass through heat exchanger

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

benefits
Benefits
  • Clean Energy
    • one sixth of carbon dioxide vs. natural gas
    • very little if any nitrous oxide or sulfur compounds
  • Availability
    • 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
  • Homegrown
  • Renewable

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

environmental effects
Environmental Effects
  • Only emission is steam
  • Salts and dissolved minerals reinjected
  • Some sludge produced
    • Mineral extraction
  • Little Visual Impact
    • Small acreage, no fuel storage facilities

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

location
Location
  • Hot geothermal fluid
  • Low mineral and gas content
  • Shallow aquifers
    • Producing and reinjecting the fluid
  • Private land
    • Simplifies permit process
  • Proximity to transmission lines

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

future
Future
  • Only tiny fraction is currently used
    • Dry hot rock heated by molten magma
    • Drill into rock and circulate water

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

slide57

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy

Hydropower

Wind Power

Biomass

Geothermal

Sustainability

slide58

Suggestions to make the transition to a more

sustainable energy future.

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

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