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S. Amar, G. Bartone, J. Baudot, A. Besson, G. Claus, C. Colledani, M.Deveaux , A. Dorokhov, G. Dozière, W. Dulinski, C. Dritsa, X.Fang, J.C. Fontaine, I. Fröhlich, M. Goffe, D. Grandjean, S. Heini, A. Himmi, C. Hu, M. Koziel, K. Jaaskelainen, F. Morel, C. Muentz, N. Pillet, C. Schrader,

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slide1

S. Amar, G. Bartone, J. Baudot, A. Besson, G. Claus, C. Colledani, M.Deveaux, A. Dorokhov,

G. Dozière, W. Dulinski, C. Dritsa, X.Fang, J.C. Fontaine, I. Fröhlich, M. Goffe, D. Grandjean, S. Heini,

A. Himmi, C. Hu, M. Koziel, K. Jaaskelainen, F. Morel, C. Muentz, N. Pillet, C. Schrader,

A. Shabetai, J. Stroth, M. Szelezniak, I. Valin, B. Wiedemann, M. Winter (Project coordinator MAPS)

Status of the R&D on MAPS in Strasbourg and Frankfurt

  • Outline:
  • Operation principle of MAPS (a reminder)
  • Fast readout
  • Radiation hardness
  • System integration and material budget
  • Summary and Conclusion
slide2

Particle trajectory

Diode

Preamplifier (one per pixel)

Diffusing free electrons

~20µm

The operation principle of MAPS

A Minimum Ionising Particle creates ~80 e-/h-pairs perµm in Si

Collection with build in voltages and thermal diffusion

P++ = Highly P-doped

~ 30µm

N

P++

P-

P++

slide3

The MIMOSA - Technology

Minimum Ionizing Particle MOSActive Pixel Sensor

  • Features of the MIMOSA – detectors:
  • Single point resolution 1.5µm - 2.5µm
  • Pixel – pitch 10-40 µm
  • Thinning achieved 50 - 120µm
  • S/N for MIPs 20 – 40
  • Detection efficiency > 99%
  • Radiation hardness: 1MRad ; 2 x 1012 neq/cm²
  • Produced in various commercial CMOS-Processes

MIMOSA IV

slide4

Main R&D Directions

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression
  • Thinning and material budget
  • Thinning of Chips
  • Feasibility studies on thin support structures
  • System integration and reliability
  • Study complex sys-tems composed of numerous chips
  • Radiation hardness
  • Search for improved sensors (pixel design, production process…)
slide5

Fast readout and good time resolution

  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Concept:

~1000 on - chip discriminators

Pixel array

Data sparsifi-cation logic

Output:

Cluster information

(zero suppressed)

Blind area

Sensor

Column parallel readout is demonstrated but needs improvement.

Data sparsification logic remains to be developed.

Goal: A readout time of ~ 10µs for CBM

slide6

~ On - chip discriminator

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Pixel array

Data sparsifi-cation logic

  • MIMOSA-16
  • Designed in AMS-0.35µm Opto
  • 32 columns of 128 pixels (25 µm pitch)
  • On-pixel CDS
  • On-chip discriminator
  • Improved version of the successful MIMOSA-8

Beam test at CERN – SPS in early September

Some results are labelled „Private and preliminary“:

Data is roughly 2 weeks old, very preliminary analysis.

Only the few results shown are stabilized (might still get better).

CAD – Layout

of MIMOSA-16

slide7

MIMOSA-16

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Good reference design (4.5 x 4.5 µm² diode)

Collection diode too small (2.4 x 2.4 µm²)

Detection efficiency [%]

Detection efficiency of reference

design is > 99 %

For some pixels, the collection diode

was chosen to small (insufficient CCE)

Fake hit rate at typical discriminator

threshold (> 4 mV) < O(10-4)

S/N (MIMOSA-8) = ~ 8-9

S/N (MIMOSA-16) = ~ 16-17

A. Besson

10-2

  • Note:
  • Spatial resolution: 5-6 µm
  • Digital resolution: 7.2 µm
  • Clustering helps despite of digital

output 

A. Besson

10-8

slide8

MIMOSA-16

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Significant pixels / hit

A. Besson

Mean number of firing pixels/hit varies between 2.5 and 6

slide9

MIMOSA-16

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

4.5 x 4.5µm² - diode

7.8 mV

IPHC-Strasbourg

CEA-Saclay

3.5 mV

A. Besson (modified)

Pixel multiplicity in clusters has a wide distribution.

One can hardly accept only clusters with >1 significant pixel!

slide10

~ On - chip discriminator

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Pixel array

Data sparsifi-cation logic

  • MIMOSA-16 works very well . . .
  • but leaves room for improvement:
  • Too short col. lengths
  • Pixels still too big (25 x 25 µm²) => limited radiation hardness
  • Next generation prototype MIMOSA-22 under preparation :
  • Coll. length = 640 pixel (needs different design of steering and readout busses)
  • Pixels smaller (18.4 x 18.4 µm²), needs smaller discriminators
  • Slow control with JTAG
  • 128 colls. digital, (+ 8 analogue for debugging/test purpose)
  • Submission planned for 27. October 2007
  • Tests planned February 2008
slide11

~ On - chip discriminator

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Pixel array

Data spasifi-cation logic

FPGA-based solution

Flexible for testing different strategies

Use existing chips as sensor

Compatible with HADES – DAQ

Test in HI-experiment is possible (MVD demonstrator)

SUZE – 1 chip

First test of on-chip implementation

Close to hardware but inflexible

Only digital part, (not yet combined with sensor)

Not (yet) designed for beam tests

See talk of C. Schrader

slide12

Fast readout and good time resolution

  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

The readout architecture of SUZE-1:

  • Surface: ~ 3.6 x 3.6 mm²
  • Still too slow for CBM but sufficient for STAR-HFT and EUDET (FP6)
  • Submitted for fabrication, back from foundry in October
  • Test completed by end of year
  • Next generation chip is scheduled for 2008 (faster logic)

4 output memories ( 512 x 16 bits)

  • Integrated logic:
  • Step 1 (inside blocks of 64 colls)
  • identify up to 6 series of up to four
  • significant pixels / line
  • -Step 2
  • Read-out outcome of step-1 in all blocks,
  • keep up to 9 series of four pixels
slide13

~ On - chip discriminator

  • Fast readout and good time resolution
  • Improvement of analog electronics
  • Integration of zero suppression

Pixel array

Data spasifi-cation logic

MIMOSA-22+ = MIMOSA-22 + SUZE-1

  • MIMOSA-22 sensor + discriminator:
  • 640 pixels per coll. x 1088 colls (more than Mi-22, surface ~1 x 2 cm²)
  • Pixel pitch 18.4 x 18.4 µm²
  • Integration time ~ 100 µs
  • + SUZE-1 data sparsification logic

Final sensor for EUDET - Telescope

Submission planned October 2008

slide14

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Main concern for CBM:

Non-ionizing radiation hardness

Limitation of the non-ionizing radiation hardness:

Reduced charge carriers lifetime => Signal electrons recombine before being collected

Strategy to improve:

A) Speed up charge collection time

B) Use thicker sensor, produce more initial signal

C) Recover lifetime of electrons

How to do it:

A) Reduce pixel pitch, shorter way, faster collection

40 µm => ~1011 neq / cm², 20 µm => ~1012 neq / cm² (MIMOSA-9)

Try to modify pixel structure for faster collection (MIMOSA-21)

B) Use sensors with thicker epitaxial layer (20µm instead 14µm)

C)Try cryogenic detector operation

slide15

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Study of MIMOSA-18

Smaller pixels, thicker sensor

  • MIMOSA-18
  • Designed: 2006
  • 512 x 512 pixels
  • 10µm pixel pitch (faster charge coll.)
  • Sensor thickness: 14µm and 20µm
  • Status:
  • First beam tests: June 2007 (DESY) – non irradiated chips
  • Irradiated samples now available
  • Systematic studies of irradiated chips: In Frankfurt by the end of the year
slide16

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Room for Mi18 Beamtest results

S/N

Electrons

[electrons]

[ENC]

ENC

Study of MIMOSA-18: Thicker sensor,

beam test at Desy (June 2007)

C. Dritsa

(preliminary)

C. Dritsa

(preliminary)

C. Dritsa

(preliminary)

Results show no clear preference

slide17

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

C. Dritsa (preliminary)

Study of MIMOSA-18: Thicker sensor,

beam test at Desy (June 2007)

Additional charge is observed in the periphery of the clusters only.

Benefit of thick sensor is smaller than expected.

Next step: Confirm with irradiated chips => Frankfurt

slide18

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Study of the ST-BICMOS 0.25µm process (MIMOSA-21)

  • Features:
  • Lowly doped (50 Ω cm) substrate for sensors
    • Allows depleting a bigger part of the volume => Faster charge collection
  • Deep N-Well implantation
    • Faster charge collection
    • Higher capacity (how much higher?)
    • Higher dark current (how much higher?)
    • Higher noise ?
    • Ionising radiation hardness?

Signal electron starting point

Possible trajectory

10 µm pitch

N-Well

N-Well

Deep

N-Well

Deep

N-Well

Deep N-Well diode.

Expect faster collection time.

Standard N-Well diode.

Diffusing electron may miss it.

slide19

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Study of the ST-BICMOS 0.25µm process (MIMOSA-21)

So far: Chips without epitaxial layer => Study diode properties

Chips with epitaxial layer are under design

Preliminary results (at 20°C, tInt = 40 ms => unfavorable conditions):

N-Well

N-Well

Deep

N-Well

Deep

N-Well

Lower layer is missing!

Lower layer is missing!

Leakage current : 0.5 fA (OK)

Noise : 19 ENC (still OK)

(No shot noise) : 15 ENC (OK)

CCE : Not Available

Leakage current : 0.5 fA (OK)

Noise : 19 ENC (still OK)

(No shot noise) : 15 ENC (OK)

CCE : Not Available

Both pixels show satisfactory noise performances combined with extraordinary low leakage current.

Next step: Address radiation hardness. Build chips with epi-layer

slide20

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Recombination

destroys the signal

Cryogenic detector operation:

Passivate signal traps by cooling

Efficient approach for depleted N-doped detectors.

BUT: MAPS are P-doped and undepleted.

slide21

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Cryogenic detector operation:

Passivate signal traps by cooling

  • Challenges: Build a test system
  • Chip operation at very low temperature => Isolate with vacuum
  • Operate readout board at warmer temperatures (reduce problems)
  • Transfer signals out of vacuum

PCB

MIMOSA-18 (?)

Vias for thermal

contact

Mimosa – Readout board

Support, LN2 cooled

Support, “water” cooled

@ room temperature

Preliminary concept

Input is welcome

slide22

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Cryogenic detector operation:

Passivate signal traps by cooling

  • A vacuum vessel is being
  • build at Frankfurt.
  • Mission:
  • Cryogenic MAPS operation
  • Test of MVD components under vacuum conditions.
  • Volume sufficient to test full detector stations
  • Status:
  • First vacuum tests are ongoing.
  • Experiments located in the device are still under design.
slide23

Thinning and material budget

  • Thinning of Chips
  • Feasibility studies on thin support structures

Operation Diamond

Project goal:

Build a super thin ladder of MAPS detectors with ~ 0.1 % X0

MIMOTel (50 µm)

MIMOTel (50 µm)

Contact

Printed Circuits (Al, 3 µm)

CVD – Diamond (50 – 100 µm)

  • Project partners:
  • IPHC – Strasbourg (MAPS production and coordination)
  • Diamond Materials, Freiburg (CVD- diamond production)
  • IZM – Munich (Lithography, system integration and bonding)

Project is started but ambitious fundamental research. Risks are sizeable.

Thickness of diamond aims to ILC, insufficient for our cooling requirements?

(More about material budget: See talk of C. Müntz)

slide24

Summary and Conclusion:

  • Fast column parallel architecture:
  • MIMOSA-16 beam tests demonstrated substantial improvements
  • First data sparsification chip is curently fabricated
  • Integrate sensors and data sparsification (MIMOSA-22+, in 2008)
  • FPGA board for studying interface MAPS to CBM-DAQ is under design
  • Radiation tolerance issues:
  • Interesting fab. processes are under study (20µm, deep N-Well)
  • Cryogenic chip operation is under preparation
  • Integration issues:
  • Design of MVD-Demonstrator is started at Frankfurt
  • Integration of CVD-Diamond + Silicon is under investigation by Strasbourg and partners.
slide25

Radiation hardness

  • Study of pixel designs
  • Study of dedicated production processes
  • Cryogenic detector operation

Study of MIMOSA-18, MIMOSA-19

Smaller pixels with modified structure

MIMOSA-18 (Standard – pixel, 10 µm pitch) MIMOSA-19 (Particular diode, 12 µm pitch)

Better charge collection?

More charge/pixel?

Higher capacity/lower gain

Higher noise?

Higher dark current?

Hit and

diff. e-

Collecting

diode

Standard pixel (Mimosa-18)

Mimosa – 19 pixel

Status: MIMOSA-18 is running in Strasbourg and Frankfurt

MIMOSA-19 produced, tests under preparation

Irradiation is done

slide26

General Status

  • Strasbourg:
  • Tests of the chips produced in 2006 are ongoing
  • (MIMOSA-16 to MIMOSA-21 + ADCs)
  • Chip design activities focus on fast readout
  • Specific prototypes are developed for radiation hardness issues
  • R&D on very thin support structures has started
  • Frankfurt:
  • Equipment still being completed
  • Preparation for tests on cryogenic chip operation
  • First simple radiation hardness studies were performed; systematic studies under preparation (MIMOSA-18, MIMOSA-19)
  • Intense R&D on MVD demonstrator
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