Natural Sand Replacement in Concrete
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Natural Sand Replacement in Concrete Presented by: Martins Pilegis & Andi Lusty 21 st September CMIC 2012, Melbourne, Australia PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Natural Sand Replacement in Concrete Presented by: Martins Pilegis & Andi Lusty 21 st September CMIC 2012, Melbourne, Australia. The V7 Technology. Unique Crushing System. There is an autogenous crushing within the particle cloud and on the rock bed for both, the Barmac and V7 Crushers.

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Natural Sand Replacement in Concrete Presented by: Martins Pilegis & Andi Lusty 21 st September CMIC 2012, Melbourne, Australia

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Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Natural Sand Replacement in ConcretePresented by: Martins Pilegis & Andi Lusty21st September CMIC 2012, Melbourne, Australia


The v7 technology

The V7 Technology


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Unique Crushing System

There is an autogenous crushing within the particle cloud and on the rock bed for both, the Barmac and V7 Crushers.

The V7 Crusher is constructed so there are multiple impacts in the new dense material zone.

As the material drops down from the stone wall into an increasingly dense zone, it is re-crushed by particle interaction as well as hammers, being both shaped and scrubbed.


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Unique Shaping to 75μm

Shape of particles <1mm vital

  • Workability

  • Pumpability

  • Density

Cone Crusher

Barmac VSI

V7 Crusher


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Dust

collector

VSI

Wind

power

View showing

dispersion system

Diffusion feeder

Blower

Grainsizedamper

Cut screen

Over size

(Return to VSI)

Product

Inner structure of air screen

A Unique Separation System

  • Air screen gives partial return, top-size cut and classification.

  • Raw material flows from VSI → diffusion feeder → air screen separation using the blower.

  • (5) is fully returned, and (4) is partially returned by the damper.

  • Top size (1) - (3) and part of (4) screened for oversize return.


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Unique Flexibility in Gradation

A poorly graded crusher dust becomes

even poorer after the removal of filler by washing or dedusting.

Kayasand is evenly graded and

gradations can be changed to make

the ideal sand as a single fine aggregate

component for concrete or asphalt.


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Summary of Differences

  • The V7 has a more efficient crusher than other autogenous VSI’s

  • The V7 has an airscreen with the ability to recirculate a variable size of product

  • The V7 can vary the gradation of the sand

  • The V7 can control the minus 75 micron content of the sand

  • The V7 produces a shaped particle size to 75 micron particles

  • The V7 operates dry as well as quietly and dust free

CanV7 Kayasand can COMPLETELYreplace natural sand in concrete?


Cardiff university research

Cardiff University Research


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Key Objectives

  • Primary aim to show that a manufactured sand can be made to replace natural sand and sand blends

  • Secondary aim to refine gradations to reduce cement usage and to find new uses for rock filler in agriculture

Environmental Benefit

  • If replacement is proven viable then dredging for sand can be reduced or eliminated, and viable concrete sands can be made in most quarries.


Manufactured sands

Manufactured sands

Manufactured sands from crusher dusts

with at least 4 gradings for each quarry

  • Basalt (B) – Duntilland Quarry, Holcim

  • Granite (G) – Glensanda Quarry, Holcim

  • Sandstone (S) – Gilfach Quarry, CEMEX

  • Limestone (L) – Taff’s Well Quarry, CEMEX

Basalt

Granite

Sandstone

Limestone

Materials:

CEM I 52.5 N, Crushed limestone 4/20 mm, Sea dredged natural sand control (N), Mid range plasticizer WRDA 90, manufactured sands


Characterisation tests

Characterisation tests

New Zealand Flow Cone (NZS 3111-1986)

  • Observations from mixing

  • (finishability, ease of placement)

Plastic Density

  • Particle size distribution (BS EN 933-1)

  • Slump

  • Water absorption (BS EN 1097-6)

Fresh Concrete

  • Air Entrainment

Fine Aggregate

Hardened Concrete

Methylene Blue Value (BS EN 933-9)

  • Flexural strength

  • 28 days

GMBV (Grace Rapid Clay test)

  • Compressive strength

  • 1 day

  • 7 days

  • 28 days

Sand Equivalent (BS EN 933-8 )


Manufactured sand test results

Manufactured sand test results

  • New Zealand flow cone –

    simple indirect test indicating

    shape, grading and surface texture

  • All manufactured sands fit

    within the standard envelope

  • Methylene blue test –

    indication of potential presence of clays,

    Grace’s rapid clay test directly correlated

    with these results

  • MBV reduced in all

    manufactured sands if

    compared to feed material

    0/4 mm fraction


Concrete stage 1

Concrete, Stage 1

  • Stage 1: without plasticizer, aiming for S2 slump, fixed w/c ratio for particular quarry sands which provides S2 slump.


Concrete stage 2

Concrete, Stage 2

  • Stage 2: Varying plasticizer dosage to achieve S2 slump, fixed w/c ratio at 0.55 for all sands.


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Primary Objective

  • to show that a manufactured sand can be made to replace natural sand and sand blends in concrete

MET

V7 sand can COMPLETELYreplace natural sands in concrete!


The economics

The Economics


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

V7-60 Economics (60 tph throughput)

  • Operating Costs

  • Power = 6.7kwhr per tonne throughput

  • @ 15c/kwhr = Aus $1.00

  • Wear parts and maint = $1.85 to $2.80 depending on material

  • Capital Costs

  • Typical ~ Aus $3m turnkey installation

  • 60tph capacity = 200ktpa+

  • 10 yr amortisation

Typical Opex ~ $3.20 /t throughput

Typical capital rec ~ $1.50 /t throughput


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

V7-60 Economics (60 tph throughput)

  • Sand Yields

  • Range = 75% to 85%

  • Typical = 80%

  • Depends on feed

  • - Crushing properties

  • - Filler content

  • Filler (dry premium product)

  • 15% to 30%

  • - Granulate – drainage = $15/t

  • - Road base = $20/t

  • - Asphalt/block plants = $20/t

  • - Agriculture = $20/t

Significant upside likely from filler

Premium all in fine aggregate ~ $5.80/t

(Assuming filler has no value and full capital recovery)


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

The economics compared

1 Costs will vary depending on location and feed, these costs are typical of installations Kayasand has completed detailed evaluations for.

2 Allowance for resource consent, dredger, wharf facilities.

3 Will vary depending on the distance off shore for dredging.

4 Allowance for resource consents and capital investment – wash-plant , filter press etc.

5 Wash plant operating costs vary depending on water, waste costs, efficiency etc.


The environment

The Environment


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

The Japanese Experience

  • Japan banned unnecessary dredging in 1991

  • Kayasand now accounts for 45% of all of their manufactured sand

  • While the introduction of Kayasand has been successfully implemented and the environment as well as the construction industry has benefited, regulatory change was necessary


Natural sand replacement in concrete presented by martins pilegis andi lusty 21 st september cmic 2012 melbourne australia

Driving Change for Environmental Gain

  • There is often resistance to change in any industry due to:

    • Vested interests (from existing sand, gravel and dredging companies)

    • Economic pressures and lack of priority (bigger problems so park this)

    • Relativelyslowadopters of proven but novel technology

    • The environmental cost is not borne by them


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Kayasand would like to acknowledge the financial and in kind support of:

The Aggregate Levy Fund for Wales

Kotobuki Engineering & Manufacturing Company (Kemco)

CEMEX

Aggregate Industries (Holcim)

Grace Construction Products

and Cardiff University’s Engineering Department for their input and supervision, in particular Diane Gardner and Professor Bob Lark


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