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Chapter Eleven: Environmental and Social/Cultural Impacts of Tourism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter Eleven: Environmental and Social/Cultural Impacts of Tourism. Learning Objectives. Describe how tourism can aid as well as harm the preservation of nature Describe how tourism can benefit as well as undermine a culture Explain the factors that determine an area’s carrying capacity

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Chapter Eleven: Environmental and Social/Cultural Impacts of Tourism

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Chapter Eleven:

Environmental and Social/Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Learning Objectives

  • Describe how tourism can aid as well as harm the preservation of nature

  • Describe how tourism can benefit as well as undermine a culture

  • Explain the factors that determine an area’s carrying capacity

  • Explain the concepts of ecotourism and mass tourism and their differences

  • Explain ways to fulfill the five principles of ecotourism

  • Describe the benefits that may be achieved through use of ecotourism principles

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Introduction

  • Economic Impacts are not the only important impacts tourism can have

  • Nature, peoples and cultures also affected

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Tourism and the Environment

  • Tourism can be used to help preserve the environment

    • Through education and appreciation

    • To help finance preservation

    • Creation of National Parks

  • Defining carrying capacity

    • Physical capacity

    • Environmental capacity

    • Ecological capacity

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Tourism and the Environment, continued

  • Determine carrying capacity by considering

    • Number of visitors

    • Amount or type of use by average visitor

    • Quality of resource management and facility development/design

    • Number of area residents and their quality of life needs

    • Number of other visitors

  • Carrying capacity changes when any one or more of above variables change

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Environmental Impacts of Tourism

  • Tourism development requires a foundation of infrastructure

  • Also requires development of superstructure

  • Pollution and other damage can develop with increases in visitors

  • Efforts are being taken to reduce impacts

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism

  • Society is a community, nation or broad grouping of people who have common traditions, institutions, activities and interests

  • Culture is the practices of a society

  • Host community concept

    • Resource 1: The local residents who serve and interact with guests

    • Resource 2: Community's economic system

    • Resource 3: Community's infrastructure and government services

    • Resource 4: Natural resource of the community and its outlying area

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism, continued

  • Social and cultural benefits of tourism

    • Learn about each other

    • Sharing of tastes and different ways of thinking

    • Can generate “critical mass” of interest

    • Improved standard of living

    • Preservation of area’s natural and historical sites

  • Using culture to attract tourists

    • Material goods

    • Daily life activities

    • Special expressions of culture

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Unintended Consequences of Tourism on Culture

  • Social carrying capacity

    • Number of people that a society can bear without substantial damage to its culture

  • Consequences to industrialized, high-income cultures

    • Overcrowding

    • Clash of unfamiliar behaviors

    • Resentment of residents from need to share resources with visitors

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Unintended Consequences of Tourism on Culture, continued

  • Consequences to less developed, lower income cultures

    • Demonstration effect

    • Disproportionate wages from tourism compared to traditional occupations

  • Problem of Crime

    • Due to increase in number of potential victims

    • Due to resentment and envy of visitors

    • Correlation between number of visitors and amount of crime

    • Increases in cost of police protection raises fear

  • Effect on native language

  • Decline in moral conduct of local people

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Mass Tourism vs. Ecotourism

  • Explosive growth in tourism

    • Quicker, cheaper and safer transportation

    • Increase in number of world’s citizens who can afford to travel

    • Longer lives and better health

    • Global communications

  • Destinations are proposed to go through a set of stages from exploration to decline

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Mass Tourism vs. Ecotourism, continued

  • Criticism of mass tourism

    • Architectural pollution

    • Herding of tourists

    • Disruption of traditional events and occupations

    • Diminished natural beauty and environment

    • Low priority paid to local needs

    • Economic gains short-lived but damage long-term

    • Developers abandon area when growth ceases

  • Ecotourism- need to develop tourism that minimizes environmental impacts and maximizes economic and cultural benefits

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Mass Tourism vs. Ecotourism, continued

  • Ways to Develop Ecotourism

    • Tourism should blend with the environment and local culture

    • Tourist experience should focus on host community’s existing scenic and activity opportunities

    • Local should own and manage all or most services

    • A high proportion of local materials should be used in fulfilling tourist’s needs

    • Ecotechniques should be used to conserve techniques

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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Mass Tourism vs. Ecotourism, continued

  • Ecotourism 21st Century

    • Has been used as a marketing term for a number of tour attractions

    • Covers a range of tourism experiences from “hard to soft”

  • Sustaining Tourism Benefits

    • Sustainable tourism: does not threaten the economic, social, cultural, or environmental integrity of the tourist destination

    • Formal planning processes are being used to guide future development operations

Cook: Tourism: The Business of Travel, 3rd edition (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All Rights Reserved


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