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IB Business & Management. Unit 2.1 Lesson 1: Human Resource Planning Page 167-202. 1. Focus Questions. 1. Describe what is meant by supply of human resources and demographic changes? 2. What is workforce planning and how can it help a firm achieve its aims and objectives?

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ib business management

IB Business & Management

Unit 2.1

Lesson 1: Human Resource Planning

Page 167-202

1 focus questions
1. Focus Questions
  • 1. Describe what is meant by supply of human resources and demographic changes?
    • 2. What is workforce planning and how can it help a firm achieve its aims and objectives?
      • 3. How does a firm go about recruiting and selecting employees?
2a a thousand workers a thousand plans chinese proverb
2a. A thousand workers, a thousand plans.~ Chinese proverb
  • What are the four factors of production?
    • Natural resources, capital resources, entrepreneurs and…
    • LABOR resources.
  • Businesses seek to employ the right people to achieve its aims and objectives.
    • In order to do this, a firm needs to use Human Resource Planning.
      • A.K.A – Workforce planning.
  • People are important to a firm because they add value to its output.
    • Increasing productivity,
    • Improving quality,
    • Producing new ideas and
    • Better customer service.

Photo:

http://hrappliedsolutions.com/hr03.jpg

2b an overview

Historical

Data and

trends

Technological

changes

Sales and

income

levels

Looking

For…

Demographic

changes

Labour

Turnover

rates

2b. An Overview
  • So, what do firms look at when trying to anticipate their organization’s current and future staffing needs?
3a supply of hr and demographic changes

Net

Birth

Rate

Net

Migration

Rate

Mobility of

labour

Changes in

demographics

Retirement

Age

Women

unemployment

Flexibility

Of the

workforce

3a. Supply of HR and Demographic Changes
  • Demographic changes affect the supply HR within a country.
    • What is demography?
      • A statistical study of population characteristics.
  • A business will need to understand the following changes in demographics…
3b supply of hr and demographic changes

Internal

workforce

Rate of

unemployment

Competition

Supply

of

HR

Cost

And

Availability

Of transportation

Cost of

Living

3b. Supply of HR and Demographic Changes
  • Also, the supply of human resources to a firm will depend on…
3c supply of hr and demographic changes

Increased

Dependent

Population

Change

In employment

patterns

Effects of

An ageing

Population

Reduced

Labour

Mobility

Changes

In

Consumption

patterns

3c. Supply of HR and Demographic Changes
  • If there is a surplus of human resources, then business have two choices (example during an off-peak season):
    • 1. to make workers redundant (job disappears).
    • 2. to redeploy (relocate) workers to other departments.
  • A major demographic change is the increased life expectancy of the population.
    • There are several effects caused by an ageing population…
workforce planning
Workforce Planning
  • Can be short term or long term
    • Short term deals with the current demands, ie. covering shifts for maternity, retirees
    • Long term looks at HR needs of the future, ie. training employees months/years before
workforce planning1
Workforce Planning

Historical

Data

  • Firm must consider level of demand
  • Level of demands depends on:

Derived

Demand

Flexibility

and

Workload

Level of

Demand

Work

Study

Capital

Intensity

4a workforce planning

Skills and

Training

required

Job

Analysis

Entails…

Rewards needed

To recruit

And retain

Qualifications

And personal

qualities

4a. Workforce Planning
  • The demand for labour may also decrease, due to natural wastage.
    • When someone leaves a job.
  • Workforce planning uses a lot of time and money, but can save you that and more in the long term.
    • In order to help save time and money, HR managers will conduct a job analysis.
    • Will create two important documents:
      • 1. job description
      • 2. person specification
4b workforce planning

Challenge

Job

Security

Location

Why leave

Your

Job?

Pride

Prestige

Advancement

$$ Money $$

4b. Workforce Planning
  • Many companies have a high turn over rate. Such as Wendy’s and Burger King.
  • Think about it:
    • Why would people leave their jobs?
      • CLAMPS
  • So how do you retain staff?
    • Offer training
      • Professional and development courses.
ib business management1

IB Business & Management

Unit 2.1

Lesson 2: Recruitment & Selection

Page 167-202

1 focus questions1
1. Focus Questions
  • 1. How vital is the recruitment and selection process for a business?
    • 2. What is the application process?
      • 3. How do firm’s select employees?
2a recruitment and selection
2a. Recruitment and Selection
  • It is a vital part to the running of a business.
    • Hiring the right people ensures that the business can function effectively.
    • Recruitment is time consuming and very expensive.
  • So, how does this process begin?
    • A vacancy become available.
      • Due to expansion of the business.
      • Replacement of staff.
  • See Box 2.1b on pg. 174.
2b recruitment and selection
2b. Recruitment and Selection
  • Once the a job analysis has been performed, several things will happen:
    • The HR manager will:
      • Produce a job advertisement and this will include…
        • A job description: outlines the details of the job
        • A person specification: gives the profile of the ideal candidate.
          • An example of a job advertisement: http://jobview.monster.ca/getjob.aspx?JobID=63277559&q=marketing&cy=ca&lid=224&jto=1&re=112&pp=25&pg=1&dv=1&AVSDM=2009-05-09+14:49:00&seq=9&fseo=1&isjs=1&re=1000
  • Also see Box 2.1c for a list of skills sought by employers.
2c recruitment and selection
2c. Recruitment and Selection
  • Once the job advertisement has been finalized, the next step is to…what?
    • ADVERTISE the job.
      • The advertisement may include…
        • hours of work, rate of pay and any fringe benefits.
        • Include contact points
        • Address of business
        • Deadline of the ad.
  • A good job advertisement will hopefully attract suitable applicants. So, How do HR managers ensure this?
2d recruitment and selection
2d. Recruitment and Selection
  • They should consider the following 5 TRAPS when designing an effective ad.
    • 1. Truthful: do not make false claims
    • 2. Relevant: be to the point
    • 3. Accurate: must be precise
    • 4. Positive: help encourage people to apply
    • 5. Short: space is expensive, include necessary information.
3 the application process
3. The Application Process
  • What are the three methods an applicant will use for applying for a vacancy?
    • Application form
    • Curriculum Vitae or CV / Resume
    • Covering Letter
  • More common today to apply online, using online forms or just sending your CV via email.
4a the selection process
4a. The Selection Process
  • Once the forms have been filled out and the resume send, now what?
    • The HR manager will sieve through all the resumes and forms and pick out suitable candidates.
    • They will create a short-list of people from all the applicants.
    • This short-listing process will involve comparing the CV’s of the applicants to the job description.
    • From there, you select people to interview.
4b the selection process
4b. The Selection Process
  • The three main methods in selecting the best candidates are:
    • 1. Interviews:
      • A video-conferencing interview
      • A Face-to-Face interview
        • Two commonly used checklist models used in interviews can be found on pg. 177, Box 2.1a
  • The objective of the interview process is to establish the best match between applicant and the job.
    • This is done by asking a series of questions:
      • Behavior based questions (assesses a person’s behavioral pattern)
      • Situation-based questions (evaluates critical thinking)
  • See pg. 178, Box 2.1d for a list of common interview questions.
  • Also review the Do’s and Don’ts for interviews on the same page.
4c the selection process
4c. The Selection Process
  • The three main methods in selecting the best candidates are:
    • 2. Testing:
      • Due to the limitations of an interview testing maybe used.
      • It is more time consuming, increases the chances of hiring the right person and is cost-effective.
      • Four main types of testing:
        • 1. Psychometric: assesses personality; level of motivation.
        • 2. Aptitude: assesses ability and skill; problem solving and reasoning skills.
        • 3. Intelligence: assesses mental ability; numeracy, literacy, and general knowledge.
        • 4. Trade: assesses specific skills; useful when standards or skills can not be judged.
4d the selection process
4d. The Selection Process
  • The three main methods in selecting the best candidates are:
    • 3. References:
      • written statements about an applicant from a previous employer.
      • Will usually confirm the strengths and weaknesses of an applicant.
      • Serve as a security check.
  • Now once a suitable candidate has been picked, they will receive a contract.
    • A written statement of the terms and conditions of employment. See Box 2.1f for more details on pg. 179.
  • An finally, induction; new staff receive training for their new role.
ib business management2

IB Business & Management

Unit 2.1

Lesson 3: Internal and External

Recruitment

Page 167-202

1 focus questions2
1. Focus Questions
  • 1. What is internal and external recruitment?
    • 2. What are some methods of appraisal?
      • 3. How does training effect a company?
        • 4. What are the employment trends?
2 internal recruitment

Cost effective

Few

Applicants

Motivational

Advantages

Of hiring

Within a

firm

Less

Down time

Internal

Politics

Disadvantages

Time

Consuming

Less risk

“Deadwood”

2. Internal Recruitment
3a external recruitment

Newspaper

Ads

Direct

Contacts

Specialist

Trade

Publications

Internet

Ads

University

Visits

Advantages

Of hiring

Within a

firm

Commercial

Employment

Agencies

Headhunting

Job

Centres

3a. External Recruitment
4a appraisals

assess

&

Record

proformance

Aid in

Assessing

Suitability

For promotion

Assess

Training

needs

Reasons

For

Appraisals

For

reflection

Aid

Professional

development

Set new

goals

4a. Appraisals
  • Is a form of assessment.
  • What does it assess?
    • An employee’s performance.
    • Usually carried out on an annual bases.
4b appraisals

Used to

Set targets

Time

Consuming

Confidential

feedback

Regular

Monitoring

Is difficult

Is a

Daunting

experience

Feedback

From

staff

Advantages

To praise

Staff

objectively

Appraisals

Linked

To pay

Disadvantages

Hurt peoples

Feelings

And

relationships

Appraisers

Lack

experience

Staff

May get

Offended

By comments

Provide

Constructive

criticism

4b. Appraisals
4c appraisals

Methods

Of

Appraisals

Upwards

Appraisal

(employee

Appraises

A senior)

Essay

Appraisal

(write about

Strengths

And

Weaknesses)

360 degree

Appraisal

(collect

Opinions

From people

You work

With)

Rating

System

(rate specifics

About the

Job)

MBO

Management

by

Objectives

(assessing

Your

objectives)

Peer

Appraisal

(same level

Of employee

Appraisal)

Self

Appraisal

(you

Appraise

Yourself)

4c. Appraisals
4d appraisals

Record

And

Report

Counter-

sign

Sign

Final

Report

Appraisal

Meeting

Written

Report

4d. Appraisals
  • The performance appraisal will include the following steps:
4d appraisals1

Issue an

Advisory

letter

No

Improvement-

Dismiss

employee

Monitor

the

performance

Offer

counselling

Discuss

consequences

4d. Appraisals
  • If an appraisee has an overall rating below “moderate”, the following actions can be taken:
5a training
5a. Training
  • What is training?
    • The process of providing opportunities for workers to acquire employment related skills and knowledge.
  • Can you think of any jobs which require constant training or upgrading of skills and knowledge?
  • The objectives of training:
    • Adapt to change
    • Develop multi-skilled workers
    • Improve quality of work
    • Enhance efficiency
    • Facilitate career and personal development
5b training
5b. Training
  • In order to develop a flexible workforce training and development are crucial.
    • Creating workforce flexibility refers to the ability of workers to mulitask.
    • The benefits of this are:
      • Flexible and productive
      • Financially successful
    • The limitations:
      • Can be costly
      • Loss of output
      • No guarantee that training will solve business problems
5c induction training

Meet Key

Personnel

Mentor

Is

introduced

Look at

Company

policies

Tour

The

Premises

Learn

About

Job role

5c. Induction Training
  • Induction training: is aimed at introducing new employees to the organization.
5d induction training

Create

Good

Working

habits

Planning is

Time

consuming

Morale is

boosted

Advantages

Helped to

Understand

Corporate

culture

Disadvantages

Information

overload

Key

Personnel

Must be

free

Settle in

quicker

5d. Induction Training
5e on the job training
5e. On-the-job Training
  • Is training carried out at the work place.
  • It involves learning by doing.
    • “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.”
      • Confucius
5f on the job training

cheap

Can pickup

Bad

Working

habits

Convenient

location

Training is

relevant

Advantages

Disadvantages

Trainers

Will be taken

Away from

Their

job

Trainers

May lack

experience

Establish

Work

relations

Fewer

Disruptions

Of daily

operations

5f. On-the-job Training
5g off the job training

Experts

Give

training

Very

expensive

Networking

Advantages

Wider

Range of

training

Employees

May leave

After gaining

training

Disadvantages

Loss

Of

output

No

distractions

Skills and

Knowledge

May not

Be useful

5g. Off-the-job Training
6a dismissal redundancy
6a. Dismissal & Redundancy
  • Employee contracts can be terminated in several ways:
    • 1. Dismissal
    • 2. Redundancy
    • 3. Retirement
    • 4. Resignation
6b dismissal redundancy

incompetence

Legal

requirements

Dismissal is

Fair when…

misconduct

Gross

misconduct

6b. Dismissal & Redundancy
  • Dismissal:
    • You are fired, sacked due to incompetence.
    • Many reasons for a dismissal.
  • Not all cases of dismissal are justified.
    • Discrimination and
    • Constructive dismissal.
      • When your employer has made it difficult for the worker to continue their job.
6c dismissal redundancy
6c. Dismissal & Redundancy
  • Redundancy:
    • Occurs when the employer can no longer afford to employ the worker.
      • Often referred to as retrenchments or lay-offs.
  • When you lay workers off, two methods can be used:
    • 1. Voluntary redundancy:
      • When the employer asks the employee to be laid off.
    • 2. Compulsory redundancy:
      • When the employer has to choose which workers to make redundant.
        • Two ways to do this:
          • A. LIFO method: last in, first out.
          • B. retention by merit method: least productive workers are made redundant.
  • Some larger business may want to redeploy its staff.
    • Is this always the best strategy?
7a changing employment patterns and practices

Employment

sector

Flexitime

Ageing

Population

Flexible

Work

Structures

Part-time

employment

Changes

In

Employment

Patterns

Teleworking

Portfolio

Working

Home

working

7a. Changing Employment Patterns and Practices
  • Employment patterns change overtime.
  • Here are a list of these trends.
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