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The Legacy of the Western World. Chapter 1. The Legacy of the Western World Chapter 1. Section 1: The First Civilizations. What is civilization?.

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The legacy of the western world chapter 1

The Legacy of the Western World Chapter 1

Section 1: The First Civilizations


What is civilization
What is civilization?

The word "civilization" comes from the Latin word for townsman or citizen, civis, and its adjectival form, civilis. To be "civilized" essentially meant being a townsman, governed by the constitution and legal statutes of that community


The rise of civilization
The rise of civilization

Civilization is defined as: highly organized society marked by advanced knowledge of trade, government, arts, science and often time written language

The Parthenon in Athens is an example of classical Greek Civilization.

The ruins of Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas," has become the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization.


What is culture
What is culture?

Culture - has been called "the way of life for an entire society." As such, it includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, norms of behaviors and systems of belief.


What is the first know society
What is the first know society

The earliest known civilizations (as defined in the traditional sense) arose in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq, Persia in modern-day Iran, the Nile valley of Egypt. The inhabitants of these areas built cities, created writing systems, learned to make pottery and use metals, domesticated animals, and created complex social structures with class systems.


Asia minor
Asia Minor

  • This is the area were most civilization began in prehistory and history.

  • With many water ways and food source the fertile crescent became the center of the universe to its people.

  • It is believed that this area was an abundant food source to the hunters and gathers.

  • With farming a bigpopulation of people emerged out of the land


Ancient mesopotamia
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

  • Oldest known civilization

  • Cradle of Human Civilization

  • Hammurabi-powerful ruler


Political mesopotamian law
Political:Mesopotamian Law

  • Code of Hammurabi = 282 laws

  • Retaliation “eye for an eye tooth for a tooth” fundamental to the code

  • Punishment different between classes of society


Patriarchal society
Patriarchal Society

  • Dominated by men

  • Woman’s duties were in the home

  • Children must be obedient


Egyptian civilization
Egyptian civilization

  • Egyptian civilization arose a bit after Mesopotamia.

  • Geography: It was centered around the Nile River.



Political egyptian pharaohs
Political:Egyptian Pharaohs

  • Egyptians were led by Pharaohs.

  • They were priest-kings

  • King Tut is the most famous

  • Using computers, this image was reconstructed using his remains


Solomon’s

Kingdom

Split into two kingdoms after Solomon’s death: Israel and Judah


Judaism a monotheistic (one god) religion arose from the region. They believed they had a covenant with God and prophets spoke for God.



Indus economy
Indus Economy

  • Just like the other river valley civilizations, the Indus river valley people were mostly farmers.

  • Traditional economy

  • They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians (Mesopotamians).


Indus river valley
Indus River Valley

  • First people were displaced by the Aryans.

  • Developed a caste system based on occupation and extended family networks.




Siddhartha Gautama the Indus civilization(563-483 BCE)

  • Born in NE India (Nepal).

  • Raised in great luxuryto be a king.

  • At 29 he rejectedhis luxurious life toseek enlightenmentand the source ofsuffering.

  • Lived a strict,ascetic life for 6 yrs.

  • Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.

  • Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.


Ancient china
ANCIENT CHINA the Indus civilization

Began 2000 B.C.


As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River, Chinese civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Yellow River Valley.


China
China civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

  • Confucianism: humanity, learning, family, peace and justice - Confucious

  • People were naturally good

  • Obedience to leaders was important

Confucius: sixth century teacher and philosopher


The legacy of the western world chapter 11

The Legacy of the Western World civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Chapter 1

Section 2: The Civilization of the Greeks


Polis city state
Polis = City-State civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

Greece was divided into city-states, each known as a polis. The two main city-states were Sparta and Athens. The greatest of these was Athens which was a center of intellectual and cultural development - “the nursery of western civilization.”


Geography in history
Geography In History civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

The ancient Greek city-states never united because the land was very mountainous and hilly making travel difficult. This is one case where geography influenced history.


Structure of the polis
Structure of the Polis civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

Each polis was built around an acropolis, a fortified hill with the temple of the local god at the top.


Structure of the polis1
Structure of the Polis civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

At the foot of the acropolis was the agora, an open area used as a marketplace. By 700 B.C. this inner part of the polis had become a city. With the villages and farmland around it, it made up a city-state.


Tyrant
TYRANT civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

Rulers who seized power by force and were not subject to the law.

A PERSON WHO RULES A NATION WITH ABSOLUTE POWER


Political athens was the first democracy
Political: Athens was the first democracy. civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

  • Democracy: type of government where people vote.

  • Athens was a direct democracy where people vote on everything.

  • The U.S. today is a representative democracy, where we vote for people to make decisions for us.


Political terms
Political terms civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

  • All of Greece wasn’t a democracy.

  • Most of Greece was a monarchy type of government ruled by a king or queen.


Sparta
Sparta civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

  • Sparta was an isolated city-state that was culturally and politically different from Athens.

  • Sparta was an oligarchy, government ruled by a few. They had 2 kings.

  • During the Peloponnesian Sparta sacked Athens.


Political sparta was an oligarchy
Political: Sparta was an oligarchy. civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

  • oligarchy : rule by a few.

  • Sparta had two kings who led the army.

  • Five citizens were elected yearly as ephors to supervise education and conduct of the polis .

  • Council of Elders: Two kings and 28 citizens over age 60 who decided what issues the assembly of all citizens could vote on with no debate allowed.


Spartan goal
Spartan Goal civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

Sparta tried to become the strongest state in Greece. They also disliked change. This would later prove to be a weakness for them. Spartans preferred actions to words. A “Spartan lifestyle” both then and today is one that is simple and highly disciplined with few luxuries.


Now that s tough
Now that’s tough! civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

There is a story about a Spartan boy who, in order to conceal a fox which he had stolen, hid it beneath his cloak and allowed the fox to gnaw him rather than let the theft be revealed. He died of the wounds. If he had been discovered, the disgrace would not have been in the stealing, but in allowing it to be detected. The boy's action illustrates the main purpose of the Spartan educational system, which was to produce men capable of showing such bravery as soldiers. Military strength was felt to be necessary to Sparta for their very survival.


Sparta1
Sparta civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

Sparta was known for its great army and was a rival of Athens. Their army was known for holding off the Persian army of 250,000 at Thermopylae for three days with only 7000 soldiers. This gave the people of Athens time to escape before the Persians invaded there.


Sparta2
Sparta civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the

  • Spartan society was obsessed with war.

  • Boys were sent to military school at a young age.

  • Boys who are born deformed are left to die on mountainsides


Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy. In the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Athens


Government education
Government & Education the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Athenian democracy was for free, male Athenians only. Education for men was highly valued. Only boys of wealthy families attended schools. The term academy comes from Athens.


Direct democracy
Direct Democracy the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

All male citizens debate and vote on issues in an open assembly


Pericles
Pericles the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Reformed Athenian democracy by introducing pay for elected officials.

  • Helped to make Athens the “school of Greece.”


Classical greek philosophy

Classical Greek Philosophy the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.


Socrates 470 399 bc
Socrates the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. 470-399 BC

  • Simple man

    • Stonemason

      “The unexamined life is not worth living.”

  • Believed in a single, all powerful God

  • Used dialectics (Socratic Method) to find ultimate truth


Socrates
Socrates the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Socratic Method

    • Posed questions and then questioned the answers

    • Searched for the ultimate nature of qualities

      • What is Duty?

      • What is Truth?

      • What is Evil?


Socrates1
Socrates the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Accused and convicted of “corrupting the youth” by encouraging critical thinking.

  • He did not put on a defense

  • Sentenced to death

  • Drank hemlock (Poison)


Plato 427 347 bc
Plato the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. 427-347 BC

  • Student of Socrates

  • Born an aristocrat

  • Founded the Academy

    • First university

    • Purpose-thinking about deeper meanings

  • Wrote dialogues of Socrates, his own political theory and works of ethics


Plato
Plato the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • The Republic

    • Ideal society of three groups

    • Rule by the philosopher-kings

    • Warriors to protect society

    • Masses

    • Believed women should be educated and have access to all positions in society.


Aristotle 384 322 bc
Aristotle the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. 384-322 BC

  • Son of a physician

  • Born in Macedonia

  • Attended the Academy

  • Became Plato’s foremost student

  • Left the Academy when Plato died

  • Founded the Lyceum in Athens

    • More focused in natural science


Aristotle
Aristotle the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Aristotelian Scientific Method

    • Used for 2000 years

    • Basic assumptions based on reasoning

      • Deductive method

    • Observations used to confirm the assumptions

      • Example: Elements of earth (4) and heavens

      • Example: Qualities of things

    • Did not employ experimentation

      • Disturbs nature


Aristotle1
Aristotle the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Wrote on politics

    • Assembled 158 constitutions to compare

    • Three type of governments existed

      • Rule by one man—monarchy/tyranny

      • Rule by a few men—aristocracy/oligarchy

      • Rule by many—polity/democracy

    • Individual considered greater than the state


Classical Greek Philosophy the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Alexander

Xenophon

Eschines

Socrates

Raphael

Zeno

Alcibiades

Plato

Aristotle

Zoroaster

Epicurus

Parmenides

Hypatia

Averroes

Diogenes

Ptolemy

Anaxagoras

Heraclitus

Anaximander

Pythagoras

Euclid


Greek decline
Greek Decline the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

The Greeks began to lose their sense of community and fought with one another. In 338 B.C. Philip II of Macedonia north of Greece (Alexander the Great’s father) conquered Greece.


The legacy of the western world chapter 12

The Legacy of the Western World the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. Chapter 1

Section 3: Rome and the Rise of Christianity


Two groups

Two Groups the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Patricians: wealthy landowners became a ruling class

Plebeians: less wealthy farmers, merchants and craftsman


Roman republic

Roman Republic the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

A republic is a government were the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have a right to vote. In Rome both patricians and plebeians could vote but only patricians could hold office.


Republican Government the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

2 Consuls

(Rulers of Rome)

Senate

(Representative body for patricians about

300 members)

Tribal Assemblies

(Representative body for plebeians)


Republican government
Republican Government the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Ruled by a senate and the people

    • SPQR= Senate and the People of Rome

    • Senate (patricians) appointed consuls (1 year)

      • Foreign affairs and the military

      • Direct access by the people to the consul

    • People (plebs) organized by tribes and they elected 10 tribunes

      • Governed local affairs

      • Had veto power (individually)


Constitution balanced power
Constitution the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. (balanced power)

  • Senate

    • Never made laws but advice was accepted

    • Had power to appoint a person to solve a specific problem (He was a "speaker" or "dictator")

    • Appointed censors (moral guardian/rank judge)

    • Appointed governors

  • Concilium plebis

    • Made all the laws (called plebecites)

    • Elected magistrates (administrators) and judges

  • Comitia Curiata/Centuriata – plebs and patricians

    • Committed the emporium (military power)

  • All met in the forum (looked over each other)

  • Pontifex Maximus

    • Religious leader


The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Providing political and social rights for the plebeians. Applied only to Roman citizens.


Law of Nations the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Succeeded the 12 Tables to include non-Romans as the republic became an empire. It is the basis of modern legal systems today.


Rule of law
Rule of Law the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • It means nobody is above the law, not the king, not the senate, not the people, not the police.

  • Laws are written down and must be respected


Roman expansion outside italy
Roman Expansion (outside Italy) the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Conquest of the East and West

    • Master of the Mediterranean Sea

    • Toleration

    • Extended citizenship to conquered people

    • Latin language spread

    • Romans influenced laws, architecture and engineering


Building an empire
Building an Empire the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Structure of the "empire"

    • Still a republican form of government

    • Checks and balances

    • Two parties emerged

      • Optimares (conservatives, Cato and Cicero)

      • Populares (power to people)

  • Family considered important

  • Values (according to the Romans)

    • Piety

    • Discipline

    • Frugality

    • Not greedy

    • Righteous wars

    • Never quit


The roman empire

The Roman Empire the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.


Caesar augustus
Caesar Augustus the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • 63 BC-14 AD

  • Octavian was winner of 18 years civil war

  • Designated heir of Julius Caesar

  • Was of the family of Caesar (adopted) so he took the name Caesar

  • Given the name Augustus by the Senate


Caesar augustus1
Caesar Augustus the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Beginning the Empire

    • Augustinian Code

      • Roman Law was rewritten and solidified

      • Basis of western laws today

      • Equity

    • Honest government

    • Added to the road system

      • 53,000 miles of paved roads

    • Postal system and other city infrastructure

    • Standard currency system

    • Improved harbors


Roman christianity
Roman Christianity the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

The origins and early spread of Christianity took place in the Roman Empire. It was based on the teachings of Jesus Christ. Spread during the Pax Romana. Despite persecution of the early Christians, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.


The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.


The Rise of Christianity the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.


The Spread of Christianity the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.


Constantine
Constantine the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • 306-337 AD

  • Succeeded his father as Caesar after fighting 7 other claimants

  • Made Christianity official religion of the empire


Catholic church
Catholic Church the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Became the official Christian church of Rome

  • Served as an intermediary between people and God


The legacy of the western world chapter 13

The Legacy of the Western World the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. Chapter 1

Section 4: New Patterns of Civilization

(500-1600)


The world of islam
The World of Islam the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • RELIGIOUS CAPITAL IS MECCA

  • ISLAM:”SURRENDER”, RELATED TO ‘SALAAM’, OR PEACE.

  • ISLAM IS ALSO A CODE FOR SOCIAL CONDUCT

  • SPREAD FROM ARABIAN PENNISULA WEST TO SPAIN AND EAST TO INDIA


THE RELIGION OF ISLAM IS LEAD BY the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

MUHAMMAD

BUT ALL ARE EQUAL SO NO PRIESTS ARE IN CHARGE


Islam, 610-632 the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • 571 Muhammad born in Mecca.

  • 610 First revelation in the Harraa cave (27 Ramadan).

  • 622 “Hijra”or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution

  • and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).

    • Year 1 in the Islamic calendar

    • ‘Missionaries’ sent all over Arabia

      • building peaceful coalition

  • 629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)

    • destroys idols in Alqaaba.

    • single-handedly, brings peace to war-torn Arabia

  • 632 Muhammad dies in Almadinah. Unmarked grave (his will)


  • The Quran: the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

  • Islam’s holy book, an inspired scripture. God’s word inspired to his messenger,

  • 114 Chapters (chapter = Surah), 4 to >200 verses/chapter (verse = Aiyah)

  • Confirms most narratives and prophets of the Jewish and Christian faiths

  • Allah is the word for God used by Christian and Muslim Arabs

    • God = Allah (Arabic) = Eluhim (Hebrew) = El (Aramaic)

  • One and only one God, no trinity

  • Arabic as the language of the Quran


Charlemagne: 742 to 814 the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

King of the Franks based in modern Germany, France and Northern Italy. Made Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope.


Charlemagne’s Empire the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.


The late middle ages
The late Middle Ages the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Land = power Now Money = power


Feudalism political system
Feudalism the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. (political system)

  • The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $.

  • Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $.

  • Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them.

  • Serfs got food and shelter.

  • Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities


Feudalism the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.



Magna carta
Magna Carta feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • Signed in 1215

  • Example of Rule of Law

  • English King John was a bad king so his nobles forced him to sign it.

  • Limited powers of the English kings.

  • Great Charter”

  • monarchs were not above the law.

  • Kings had to consult a council of advisors.

  • Kings could not tax arbitrarily.


The Beginnings of the British Parliament feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • Great Council:

    • middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.

    • eventually called Parliament.

    • by 1400, two chambers evolved:

      • House of Lords  nobles & clergy.

      • House of Commons  knights and burgesses.


Renaissance and reformation
RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • REBIRTH OF CULTURE & LEARNING

  • STARTED IN ITALY BUT SPREAD THROUGH EUROPE

  • EARLY 1300’S – 1600

  • ART, POETRY, PAINTING, INVENTIONS

  • GROWTH OF CITIES, TRADE AND LEARNING


The renaissance man
THE RENAISSANCE MAN feudalism (gave it the force of law).

Leonardo da Vinci

  • Leonardo da Vinci a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician.

  • Idealized as the example of what a man of the period should be.

Mona Lisa painting

Drawing of a helicopter


Role of church in middle ages
Role of Church in Middle Ages feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization.

  • The Church was led by popes. Priests and nuns converted, gave care to people


Role of church
Role of Church feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • Monks were spiritual leaders (obviously)

  • They lived in monasteries that acted like trade schools and YMCAs


Role of church1
Role of Church feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • They spent years transcribing the Bible since the printing press wasn’t used in Europe yet.


Role of church2
Role of Church feudalism (gave it the force of law).

  • Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power.

  • Popes were more powerful than kings!


Churches and cathedrals during the middle ages
Churches and Cathedrals during the Middle Ages feudalism (gave it the force of law).


VS feudalism (gave it the force of law).

MARTIN LUTHER HAS PROBLEMS WITH THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BECAUSE THEY SOLD INDULGENCES TO THE RICH FOR THEIR SINS

WRITES “95 THESES” & PINS TO CHURCH DOOR


Protestant reformation
PROTESTANT REFORMATION feudalism (gave it the force of law).

PEOPLE BEGAN TO SPEAK OUT AGAINST THE POWERFUL CATHOLIC CHURCH AND NEW CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS EMERGED

MARTIN LUTHER AND JOHN CALVIN


This powerpoint was kindly donated to feudalism (gave it the force of law).www.worldofteaching.com

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