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Information. Today Chapter 14 and 16 highlights Wed., 30 November Final e xam review – BRING YOUR QUESTIONS! Instructor evaluations Mon., 12 December, 2:15-4:15pm in C317 Final E xam [email protected] Office: B-203 (by appointment). Chapter 14. READ: Key Concepts 14.1

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Information
Information

  • Today

    • Chapter 14 and 16 highlights

  • Wed., 30 November

    • Final exam review – BRING YOUR QUESTIONS!

    • Instructor evaluations

  • Mon., 12 December, 2:15-4:15pm in C317

    • Final Exam

  • [email protected]

  • Office: B-203 (by appointment)


Chapter 14

Chapter 14

READ:

Key Concepts

14.1

14.2


Dna to proteins
DNA to Proteins

1) DNA is transcribed to form RNA

2) RNA is translated to form polypeptide chains, which fold to form proteins


3 classes of rnas
3 Classes of RNAs

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)

    • Protein-building instruction

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

    • Major component of ribosomes

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    • Delivers amino acids to ribosomes


Base pairing during transcription
Base Pairing during Transcription

DNA

G C A U

G C A T

RNA

C G T A

C G T A

DNA

DNA

base pairing in DNA replication

base pairing in transcription


Transcription

PROTEIN INSTRUCTIONS

Transcription

  • Small DNA stretch = template

  • RNA polymerase = enzyme

  • Product = 1 RNA strand

transcribed DNA winds up again

DNA to be

transcribed unwinds

mRNA

transcript

RNA polymerase


Genetic code
Genetic Code

  • 64 base triplets

  • Triplets = codons

    • 61 = amino acids

    • 3 = stop

Figure 14.7Page 230


Trna structure

BRINGS AMINO ACIDS TO RIBOSOMES

tRNA Structure

codon in mRNA

anticodon

amino-acid

attachment site

amino

acid

OH

Figure 14.8Page 231


Overview

Transcription

Overview

rRNA

tRNA

mRNA

Mature mRNA transcripts

ribosomal subunits

mature tRNA

Translation


Chapter 16

Chapter 16

READ 16.2, 16.4


Polymerase chain reaction pcr

DNA heated to

90°– 94°C

Primers added to

base-pair with

ends

Mixture cooled;

base-pairing of

primers and ends

of DNA strands

DNA polymerases

assemble new

DNA strands

Double-stranded

DNA to copy

Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR)

Stepped Art

Figure 16.6Page 256


Polymerase chain reaction

Mixture cooled; base-pairing between primers and ends of single DNA strands

DNA polymerase action again doubles number of identical DNA fragments

Mixture heated again; makes all DNA fragments unwind

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Stepped Art

Figure 16.6Page 256


Gel electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis single DNA strands

  • DNA placed at one end of a gel

  • A current is applied

  • DNA molecules (-) move to + end

  • Small molecules faster than large


Nucleotides for sequencing
Nucleotides for Sequencing single DNA strands

  • Standard nucleotides (A, T, C, G)

  • Modified versions

    • Fluoresce

    • Stop DNA synthesis


Reactions proceed
Reactions Proceed single DNA strands

  • PCR

  • Stops with modified nucleotide

  • Millions of copies of varying length


Recording the sequence

Figure 16.8 single DNA strandsPage 258

T C C A T G G A C C

T C C A T G G A C

Recording the Sequence

T C C A T G G A

T C C A T G G

T C C A T G

T C C A T

T C C A

electrophoresis

gel

T C C

  • DNA placed on gel

  • Fragments move by size

  • Pass through laser beam

  • Color of each fragment is recorded on printout

T C

one of the many fragments of

DNA migrating

through the gel

T

one of the DNA fragments

passing through a laser beam

after moving through the gel

T C C A T G G A C C A


Information1
Information single DNA strands

  • Today

    • Chapter 14 and 16 highlights

  • Wed., 30 November

    • Final exam review – BRING YOUR QUESTIONS!

    • Instructor evaluations

  • Mon., 12 December, 2:15-4:15pm in C317

    • Final Exam

  • [email protected]

  • Office: B-203 (by appointment)


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