18 th century social and economic change
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18 th Century Social and Economic Change. The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. . Economic and demographic changes. 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe Most people lived in poverty.

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18 th century social and economic change

18th Century Social and Economic Change

The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.

economic and demographic changes
Economic and demographic changes
  • 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe
  • Most people lived in poverty.
  • Significant population growth until 1650; slows down until 1750 when it starts to dramatically rise again.
population explosion after 1750
Population Explosion after 1750
  • Limits to population growth before 1700: - famine, disease, war
  • Reasons for population growth:
    • disappearance of plague
    • improved sanitation,
    • improved transportation for food distribution (canal and road building in western Europe),
    • increased food supply (esp. potato).
falling death rates
Falling Death Rates
  • With the exception of England, birth rates did not significantly rise, but death rates fell.
  • A better nourished population (due to better weather, better agricultural practices, and better transport) led to people living longer.
impact of profit inflation
Impact of Profit Inflation
  • Inflation due to rising population and increased demand.
  • “Profit inflation” stimulated economic growth.
  • By the end of the 18th century, prices outperform wages, leading to hardship for the poor, particularly in France.
  • Wealth moved more and more from the poor to the wealthy due to high rents and low wages
  • Regressive tax structure that put the burden on the poor in France and much of the continent caused hardship and led to financial crises.
protoindustrialization
Protoindustrialization
  • Cottage Industries: first and foremost a family enterprise (also called “putting-out” system)

- Occurred during Agricultural Revolution

  • Putting-out system: city manufacturers took advantage of cheaper labor in the countryside
    • increased rural population eager to supplement agricultural income.
    • began to challenge urban craft industry
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Demographic changes in the 18th century were allowing population growth to occur due to expansion in agricultural production.
  • Population growth contributed to the increased demand, leading to “protoindustrialization” in the textile industries.
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