Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous
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Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??. http://www.detoxi-pad.com/. Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??. http://www.tahitiannoni.com/united_states/english/retail/store/research/index.html. Chapter 15. Design of metabolism. http://www.chem.uwec.edu/Chem454_S08/MetabolicchartBig.pdf.

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Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??

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Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??

  • http://www.detoxi-pad.com/


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??

http://www.tahitiannoni.com/united_states/english/retail/store/research/index.html


Chapter 15

Design of metabolism


http://www.chem.uwec.edu/Chem454_S08/MetabolicchartBig.pdf


G, Free Energy, recall:


  • For biochemical reactions, we define a different standard state for the concentration of H+

  • standard state for [H+] = 10-7 M, pH = 7.0

  • this modified standard state is given the symbol G°’


ATP

  • the experimental value of K’eq = 2.23 x 105


ATP-Why?

repulsion

resonance

BUT,it’s kinetically stable


Other “high energy compounds


"High energy" substance: a thermodynamically unstable substance whose hydrolysis or decomposition can be easily coupled to an unfavorable reaction. The arbitrary cut-off is~-10kJ/mol. There is no such thing as a "high energy bond" per se.


Coupled Reactions

Free energies are additive; favorable rxns can drive unfavorable;e.g.sequential coupling


Sequential coupling


Simultaneous coupling

Example:Glucose to glucose-6-phosphate


  • Example: calculate G°’ for this reaction involving phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and decide whether or not it is spontaneous

    • use the following information from Table 14.1


  • Under aerobic conditions, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water

  • the efficiency of the energy conservation under aerobic conditions is approximately 34%

  • Metabolism concerns how you get from here to there!!


  • Metabolic strategies-Oxidation(burning of carbon containing compounds)


    Substrate level phosphorylations


    Ion gradients


    Overall Process


    Recurring Motifs in Metabolism “Activated” electron and functional group carriers


    Electron Carriers:

    H:-

    NAD+


    Electron Carriers:

    FAD


    Typical Oxidation Reactions


    “Carbon” carriers


    Chemical Reaction “themes” in metabolism


    Chemical Reaction “themes” in metabolism:Patterns


    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

    • Metabolism operates at a steady state.

    • Metabolites flow through the steady state


    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate


    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

    • Metabolites flow through the steady state

    ATP


    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate


    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate


    Factors Affecting Metabolic Flow or flux through pathways

    • Amounts of enzymes

    • Catalytic activity of enzymes

    • Availability of substrates


    ATP Balance affects many metabolic pathways


    ATP Balance affects many metabolic pathways


    J

    J

    S

    A

    B

    CONTROL OF METABOLIC FLUX, J

    rate determining

    step

    P

    e.g. glucose

    pyruvate


    CONTROL OF METABOLIC FLUX, J

    e.g. Substrate Cycling:

    See glycolysis (F-6-P to F1,6-BP)


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