Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous
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Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??. http://www.detoxi-pad.com/. Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??. http://www.tahitiannoni.com/united_states/english/retail/store/research/index.html. Chapter 15. Design of metabolism. http://www.chem.uwec.edu/Chem454_S08/MetabolicchartBig.pdf.

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Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??

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Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??

  • http://www.detoxi-pad.com/


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous1

Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous??

http://www.tahitiannoni.com/united_states/english/retail/store/research/index.html


Chapter 15

Chapter 15

Design of metabolism


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

http://www.chem.uwec.edu/Chem454_S08/MetabolicchartBig.pdf


G free energy recall

G, Free Energy, recall:


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

  • For biochemical reactions, we define a different standard state for the concentration of H+

  • standard state for [H+] = 10-7 M, pH = 7.0

  • this modified standard state is given the symbol G°’


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

ATP

  • the experimental value of K’eq = 2.23 x 105


Atp why

ATP-Why?

repulsion

resonance

BUT,it’s kinetically stable


Other high energy compounds

Other “high energy compounds


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

"High energy" substance: a thermodynamically unstable substance whose hydrolysis or decomposition can be easily coupled to an unfavorable reaction. The arbitrary cut-off is~-10kJ/mol. There is no such thing as a "high energy bond" per se.


Coupled reactions

Coupled Reactions

Free energies are additive; favorable rxns can drive unfavorable;e.g.sequential coupling


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

Sequential coupling


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

Simultaneous coupling

Example:Glucose to glucose-6-phosphate


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

  • Example: calculate G°’ for this reaction involving phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and decide whether or not it is spontaneous

    • use the following information from Table 14.1


Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

  • Under aerobic conditions, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water

  • the efficiency of the energy conservation under aerobic conditions is approximately 34%

  • Metabolism concerns how you get from here to there!!


  • Just enough biochemistry to be dangerous

    Metabolic strategies-Oxidation(burning of carbon containing compounds)


    Substrate level phosphorylations

    Substrate level phosphorylations


    Ion gradients

    Ion gradients


    Overall process

    Overall Process


    Recurring motifs in metabolism activated electron and functional group carriers

    Recurring Motifs in Metabolism “Activated” electron and functional group carriers


    Electron carriers

    Electron Carriers:

    H:-

    NAD+


    Electron carriers1

    Electron Carriers:

    FAD


    Typical oxidation reactions

    Typical Oxidation Reactions


    Carbon carriers

    “Carbon” carriers


    Chemical reaction themes in metabolism

    Chemical Reaction “themes” in metabolism


    Chemical reaction themes in metabolism patterns

    Chemical Reaction “themes” in metabolism:Patterns


    Factors affecting metabolic rate

    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

    • Metabolism operates at a steady state.

    • Metabolites flow through the steady state


    Factors affecting metabolic rate1

    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate


    Factors affecting metabolic rate2

    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

    • Metabolites flow through the steady state

    ATP


    Factors affecting metabolic rate3

    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate


    Factors affecting metabolic rate4

    Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate


    Factors affecting metabolic flow or flux through pathways

    Factors Affecting Metabolic Flow or flux through pathways

    • Amounts of enzymes

    • Catalytic activity of enzymes

    • Availability of substrates


    Atp balance affects many metabolic pathways

    ATP Balance affects many metabolic pathways


    Atp balance affects many metabolic pathways1

    ATP Balance affects many metabolic pathways


    Control of metabolic flux j

    J

    J

    S

    A

    B

    CONTROL OF METABOLIC FLUX, J

    rate determining

    step

    P

    e.g. glucose

    pyruvate


    Control of metabolic flux j1

    CONTROL OF METABOLIC FLUX, J

    e.g. Substrate Cycling:

    See glycolysis (F-6-P to F1,6-BP)


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