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Stone Tool Technologies South Puget Sound “Arrowheads, Dart Points, and Knives, Oh My!”. Scott Williams, WSDOT State Capital Museum Lecture Series January, 2011. Source: http://courses.washington.edu/uwtoce06/index.html. Source: Suttles and Lane, 1990.

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Stone Tool Technologies

South Puget Sound

“Arrowheads, Dart Points, and Knives, Oh My!”

Scott Williams, WSDOT

State Capital Museum Lecture Series

January, 2011



Source: Suttles

and Lane, 1990


Morphology of Projectile Point Types

  • Body Shape (the main outline),

  • Blade Edge Outline,

  • Shoulder Type, and

  • Base Type


Paleoindian Period

13,000-11,000 BP



Fluted and stemmed
Fluted and Stemmed

Thrusting spears are the primary hunting tool


Archaic period 10 000 6 000 or 2 000 bp
Archaic Period10,000 – 6,000 (or 2,000) BP


This part gets confusing
This part gets confusing…

  • For a period of about 8,000 years there is little change in the archaeological record of stone tools

  • There is some regional and possible time variations, but they are still poorly understood

  • The atlatl is the primary hunting weapon in this period


Black lake biface age
Black Lake Biface: age?





QW-F there.

QW-D

Continuum of point use and rejuvenation

QW-C


BODY SHAPE there.BLADE EDGESHOULDER TYPESTEM TYPETYPE

Short

Isosceles

Triangle

Excurvate or

Straight or

Incurvate

Stemless

“Flat” to

Convex to

Concave Base

Not Applicable

HI-B

N=22

or

+

=

or

+

or

or

Examples:


BODY SHAPE there.BLADE EDGESHOULDER TYPESTEM TYPETYPE

Long

Isosceles

Triangle

Straight or

Excurvate

Tapered

Contracting

HI-C

N=15

=

+

or

+

+

Examples:


BODY SHAPE there.BLADE EDGESHOULDER TYPESTEM TYPETYPE

Scalene

Triangle

Excurvate or

Straight or

Incurvate

Not Applicable

Stemless

Slope Base

HI-D

N=15

=

+

or

+

or

Examples:


BODY SHAPE there.BLADE EDGESHOULDER TYPESTEM TYPETYPE

Straight

Sided

Lanceolate

Stemless

Flat or

Convex Base

Excurvate

Not Applicable

HI-E

N= 6

or

=

+

+

Examples:


BODY SHAPE there.BLADE EDGESHOULDER TYPESTEM TYPETYPE

Asymetrical,

“Canine,”

“Shark Fin”

Excurvate And

Incurvate, or Excurvate And

Straight

Rounded or

Tapered

Contracting

HI-H

N= 9

(Knife?)

+

=

&

or

+

or

+

&

Examples:


Cladogram derived from Puget Sound site projectile point types creating a phylogenesis tree of Coast Salish site temporal sequencing for approximately 4,000 years (based on PAUP* software (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) (Swofford 1998)).


lanceolate types creating a phylogenesis tree of Coast Salish site temporal sequencing for approximately 4,000 years (based on PAUP* software (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) (Swofford 1998)). point types

triangular “drill”-like types

small triangular

point types

Duwamish No. 1 site and Hartstene Island Site major projectile type percentages—note the very close percentage ratios.


Comparison of raw material types at four south Sound sites types creating a phylogenesis tree of Coast Salish site temporal sequencing for approximately 4,000 years (based on PAUP* software (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) (Swofford 1998)).


Qwu?gwes Projectile types creating a phylogenesis tree of Coast Salish site temporal sequencing for approximately 4,000 years (based on PAUP* software (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) (Swofford 1998)).

Point Types Defined


Hartstene Projectile types creating a phylogenesis tree of Coast Salish site temporal sequencing for approximately 4,000 years (based on PAUP* software (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) (Swofford 1998)).

Point Types Defined


Thanks to
Thanks to: types creating a phylogenesis tree of Coast Salish site temporal sequencing for approximately 4,000 years (based on PAUP* software (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) (Swofford 1998)).

  • Drew Crooks and the Capital Museum

  • Dale Croes, SPSCC

  • Rhonda Foster and Larry Ross, SIT CRD

  • Ralph and Karen Munro

  • Alan Spencer, NRCS

  • Jeff Flenniken, Lithic Analysts

  • Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation


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