Does texture affect appetite a study of sensory specific satiety in college aged males
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Does Texture Affect Appetite? A Study of Sensory Specific Satiety in College-Aged Males. Project Leader: Amelia Keaton. Humans Exhibit Sensory Specific Satiety . Novel sensory properties of foods induce satiated subjects to eat more in a multi-course meal (Rolls,B.J. 1980)

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Does texture affect appetite a study of sensory specific satiety in college aged males

Does Texture Affect Appetite? A Study of Sensory Specific Satiety in College-Aged Males

Project Leader: Amelia Keaton


Humans exhibit sensory specific satiety
Humans Exhibit Sensory Specific Satiety Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • Novel sensory properties of foods induce satiated subjects to eat more in a multi-course meal (Rolls,B.J. 1980)

  • Model of overeating and weight gain

  • Is this a possible method of increasing food consumption in astronauts who experience a loss of appetite?


Sensory properties that affect food intake in humans
Sensory Properties That Affect Food Intake in Humans Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • Portion Size (Rolls, B.J., 2002)

  • Palatability (Rolls, B.J. et al, 1982; Rolls, E.T., 1996)

    • Taste

    • Odor

    • Appearance

    • Texture?


Why is this important

Why is this important? Satiety in College-Aged Males

If we can manipulate the texture of a limited number of food items, then we can possibly increase food intake in astronauts.

  • This would prove especially important for long-term space missions and lunar or planetary colonization.


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • Hungry subjects fed to satiety on foods of one texture will eat more of the same foods when presented as a different texture.


Methods meals
Methods: Meals Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • Water (~275 mL)

  • Unsalted Crackers (4 kcal/g)

  • Crushed or Chunked:

    • Pineapple (0.6 kcal/g)

    • Cheese (3.9 kcal/g)

    • Peanuts (5.8 kcal/g)

Crushed

Chunked


Experimental timeline

Subject Satiety in College-Aged Males

Arrives

(males

age 17-22)

Meal 1: T=0mins

T=15mins

Meal 2: T=20mins

T= 35mins

  • Meal 1 ends

  • 5min break

  • Assigned

  • to crush or chunk

  • group

  • for Meal 2

  • Crushed Meal

  • Presented

  • VAS Completed

  • Meal 2 presented

  • (crush or chunk)

  • VAS completed

  • Meal 2 ends

  • Subject Released

  • Fasted ~12 hrs

  • Signs Waiver

  • Reads instructions

Data Collection and Analysis

  • Consumption was measured by mass and calories after each meal

  • One-way ANOVA and post hoc Student Newman Keuls testing

  • t-tests where appropriate

or

Experimental Timeline

Instructions: 1) Do not mix food.

2) Drink all water within 15 minute meal.

3) Eat until you’ve had enough during each meal.

4) Do not communicate with other subjects about the food.


Subjects
Subjects Satiety in College-Aged Males


Results: Meal 1 Satiety in College-Aged Males


Visual Analogue Ratings: Meal 1 Satiety in College-Aged Males


Meal 1 Intake (mass) Satiety in College-Aged Males


Meal 1 Intake (Calories) Satiety in College-Aged Males


Results: Meal 2 Satiety in College-Aged Males

or

or


* Satiety in College-Aged Males

~40%

*

~60%

Visual Analogue Ratings: Meal 2


Meal 2 Intake (mass) Satiety in College-Aged Males

p=0.067


2X Satiety in College-Aged Males

Meal 2 Intake (calories)


Summary
Summary Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • Subjects offered a different texture in Meal 2 consumed significantly more mass and calories than those offered the same texture.

  • Subjects offered a different texture in Meal 2 rated that meal as more appealing than those offered a second meal of the same texture.


Conclusions and Applications Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • Humans demonstrate Texture-Specific Satiety.

  • Changes in texture of some foods are sufficient to increase the amount of food consumed in a multi-course meal.

  • Since taste and smell are attenuated in space, manipulations of texture may be especially effective in promoting food intake.


Future directions for human studies
Future Directions for Human Studies Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • In order to increase food intake, it may be possible to manipulate the following food properties while subjects are in a head-down tilt model of microgravity:

    • Palatability

    • Energy density

    • Texture


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements Satiety in College-Aged Males

  • We would like to thank the Bio250 and Bio 450 research classes at Wofford College for collecting the preliminary data for experiments presented today


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