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Wind Farm Term Project: Team Windbreakers. Members : Ross Belkofer James Rayo Natalie Sample Alex Styborski Garrett Brown Dylan Warner . Executive Summary. Statement of the Problem Background Method of Solution Results

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Wind Farm Term Project: Team Windbreakers

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Wind farm term project team windbreakers

Wind Farm Term Project:Team Windbreakers

Members:

Ross Belkofer James Rayo

Natalie Sample Alex Styborski

Garrett Brown Dylan Warner


Executive summary

Executive Summary

  • Statement of the Problem

  • Background

  • Method of Solution

  • Results

  • Discussion and Conclusions


Background

Background

Introduction

  • History of Development of the Wind Turbine in this Project

  • Choices in Wind Farm Design

  • What the future holds…


Introduction

Introduction

  • An off-shore wind farm could have benefits but also many issues related to the planning and building of it. The General Electric 4.0-110 is the turbine used in this presentation.

  • Issues to address:

  • Where will this wind turbine be located and what is its purpose?

  • Obtaining consent for construction and other legal issues concerning the project.

  • Is safety a concern in the building and use of this wind turbine?


History

History

  • Introduced in 2010

  • Relatively new wind turbine

  • General Electric is a global leader

    of wind turbines around the world

[Figure 1: GE symbol(2012)]


Choice in wind turbine

Choice in Wind Turbine

  • General Electric’s proven technology

  • The 4.0 MW offshore wind turbine delivers a reliable, cost-effective, high-performance solution

  • Offshore capability to generate a multitude of energy

  • Permanent magnet generator delivers high efficiency even at low wind speeds

  • Replaces gearboxes with reliable components designed for offshore turbines


What the future holds

What the Future Holds

  • The offshore wind industry is maturing and growing

  • From a 1.5 GW base in 2008 to a forecasted 30 GW base in 2020

  • Wind power will be more dependent

  • “Powering the world… responsibly.”


Statement of the problem

Statement of the Problem

  • To construct the offshore wind turbine within the constraints of:

    • The Construction Schedule

    • The Budget

    • The Environment (Oceanic Surface)

    • Abiding to safety regulations


Why solve the problem

Why solve the problem?

  • Construction

  • Quality of Life

  • Material measurements precise i.e. concrete, machine use

  • Stick to construction schedule

  • Cheaperfor local people

  • Healthier more responsible alternative

  • Protection of Environment

  • No emission of carbon dioxide

  • Animal life - no chance of oil spills

  • Ozone layer

  • Not burning fossil fuels

  • Alternative energy

  • Clean


Mission and objectives

Mission and Objectives

Key Factors:

  • Location

  • Turbine Type / Amount

  • Cost

  • Time

Mission:

“Our General Electric 4.0-110 Offshore Wind Turbine will efficiently produce and store clean energy to power various sources off the coast of Maine.”


Iterative design

Iterative design

Develop the

Solutions

Define the problems

Implement and test

the solutions

Observe and evaluate

design


Design

Design

  • Location in relation to environment

  • Type of turbine

  • Distance from shore

  • Codes zoning

  • Wave patterns and depth of

    water (Nautical Chart)

  • Weather


Construction planning

Construction Planning

  • Weather

  • Materials/transportation

  • Workers

  • Legal consideration

    permits/consent

  • Equipment rental

  • Budget

  • Timeline

  • Safety


Scope

Scope

  • Surrounding environment

  • Marine life

  • Weather

  • Wave patterns

  • Properties of water

  • Cost

  • Energy


About the ge 4 0 110 offshore turbine

About the GE 4.0-110 OFFSHORE TURBINE

  • Horizontal Axis Turbine

  • For cost efficiency gearboxes were replaced with slow speed components for the offshore environment

  • Safety and Maintenance Advantages

  • Open nacelle and easy access to the core hub

  • Automatic Lubrication Process

  • Self generated and has redundant operation systems

  • Low operating cost

  • Efficient power to energy ratio

[Figure 1: GE 4.0-110 Offshore Turbine (2008)]


Power curve

Power Curve

  • Rated Power Capacity : 4 MW

  • Rated Power produced in 1 hour = 4 MWh

  • Rated Power produced in 1 year = 35,040 MWh

  • Rated Power produced in 1 year for 20 turbines = 700,800 MWh

  • Cut-In (Start-Up) Wind Speed: 3 m/s

  • Rated (Nominal) Wind Speed: 14 m/s

  • Cut-Out (Maximum) Wind Speed: 25 m/s


Efficiency

Efficiency

  • There is a range of wind speeds close to the rated wind speed in which the turbine performs optimally

  • After this range, performance decreases drastically

  • On average, if wind speed decreases by half, power production decreases by a factor of 8

  • Industry estimates an annual output of 30-40% of the rated capacity

  • Mean output in U.S.: 26.9% of rated capacity

  • General Electric claims a 52% capacity factor (in wind speed of 10 m/s)


Efficiency cont d

Efficiency cont’d

  • This is called capacity factor: actual output/maximum output

  • 26.9% capacity factor: 700,800 * 0.269 = 188,515 MWh in 1 year

  • 52% capacity factor: 700,800 * 0.52 = 364,416 MWh in 1 year


How many homes can a wind turbine power

How many homes can a wind turbine power?

  • Average household power consumption: 11.496 MWh per year

  • Maine: 6.252 MWh per year

  • 52% capacity factor: 31,699 homes, 58,287 in Maine

  • 26.9% capacity factor: 16,398 homes, 30,153 in Maine

  • ** This does not mean, however that our power is going straight to housing. Instead, it is being sold to a power distribution company where housing accounts for only about one third of power in the grid.


Max power calculation

Max Power Calculation

  • Max Rated Power:

  • Minimum Wind Speed = 3 M/S*

  • Maximum Wind Speeds = 25 M/S*

* Calculations included the use of MatLab™

[Figure 2: Screen Shot of MATLAB]


Offshore location

Offshore Location

  • Offshore of Maine in the United States

  • Known to have high wind speeds year-round

  • The coast is not overwhelmed with turbines with a comfortable distance away from the shore line

  • 20 turbines on water platforms

  • Google Earth map representation…


Site map

Site Map

Atlantic Coastline

[Figure 3: Google Maps Image]


Google sketch up d esign

Google Sketch-Up Design

---- Electrical connections


Layout of generator and electrical connections

Layout of Generatorand Electrical Connections

  • Generator

  • High above water

  • ensure water protection

  • Worker’s Platform

  • easy accessibility

  • storage of the generator and electrical connections

[Figure 4: Turbine Internals]


Layout of generator cont

Layout of Generator cont.

  • Direct Drive Generator:

  • Transferring DC power through the sea water

  • High inductance of salt water allows the DC power to flow

  • DC power will move through the connections and be converted at substation


Method of solution

Method of solution

  • Work Breakdown and Structure:

  • Labor

  • Contractors

    • Transportation of equipment

      • Barges

    • Platform constructor

    • General Electric (GE) for Wind Turbines


Construction schedule

Construction Schedule

  • Hiring Period of personnel: 1 month

  • Site prep and law/license registration and processing: 2-3 months

  • Equipment Ordering/Delivering: 3 weeks

  • Construction: 5-8 months

  • Testing Period: 2 weeks


Gantt schedule view

Gantt Schedule View


Cost analysis

Cost Analysis

  • The total budget will be anywhere from $220-$230 million dollars

  • Categories:

    • Safety

    • Wind Turbines

    • Labor Costs

    • Transportation

    • Equipment/Miscellaneous


Gantt cost analysis

Gantt Cost Analysis


Team windbreakers group roles

Team Windbreakers Group Roles

  • Natalie – Harmonizer and encourager

  • Alex – Clarifier and information seeker

  • Ross – Initiator and option generator

  • Dylan – Summarizer

  • Garrett – Information giver

  • James – Initiator and option generator

  • In our research we found that each of us had roles that helped to propel us and keep us going on the right track. Through this collaboration our project was completed.


Evaluation of preliminary design

Evaluation of Preliminary Design

Team 5 Ratings of Preliminary Presentation:

[Fiigure 5: GE 40-110 (2012)]


Evaluation of preliminary design1

Evaluation of Preliminary Design

  • Team 5 Brainstorming:

  • The group needs to go into more detail about each of the tasks necessary to complete the project

  • We need to find the cost of each turbine

  • We need to discuss safety more in depth

  • Consider environmental impacts more thoroughly

  • We need to research the electrical workings of the turbine


Discussion and conclusions

Discussion and Conclusions

  • Very Bright Future

  • Future challenges:

    • environmental impacts

    • cost constraints

  • Turnover Rate

    • approximately 10-15 years

  • The major challenges of wind farms:

    • Space

    • Time

    • Weather/Environment

    • Legal Regulations

    • Costs

  • These challenges can be overcome with careful planning and research


Resources

Resources

  • http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/windmaps/offshore.asp

  • http://site.ge-energy.com/prod_serv/products/wind_turbines/en/offshore/index.htm

  • http://www.thewindpower.net/turbine_en_9_ge-energy_4.0-110.php

  • http://www.4coffshRatore.com/windfarms/turbine-GE-Energy-GE-4.0-110--tid21.html

  • http://www.windpowerengineering.com/featured/buisness-news-projects/4-mw-direct-drive-headed-offshore/

  • http://www.wind-watch.org/faq-output.php


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