Stages of genocide
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Stages of Genocide. Raul Hilberg’s 4 Stages & Genocidewatch’s 8 Stages. Genocide as a Process. Eight stages that are “predictable” But NOT guaranteed Process is NOT linear Later stages must be preceded by earlier All stages continue throughout process. CLASSIFICATION:.

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Stages of Genocide

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Stages of Genocide

Raul Hilberg’s 4 Stages& Genocidewatch’s 8 Stages


Genocide as a Process

  • Eight stages that are “predictable”

    • But NOT guaranteed

  • Process is NOT linear

    • Later stages must be preceded by earlier

    • All stages continue throughout process


CLASSIFICATION:

Is to classify “us & them”; create symbol meant to classify the group

German and Jew

Hutu and Tutsi

Identification


Hutu & Tutsi or German & Jew


SYMBOLIZATION:

Give names or other symbols to classifications

Distinguish by colors or dress

Apply symbol to members of group

Identification


Identity Card of Rudolf Kohn


Star of David


DEHUMANIZATION

Denies the humanity of the group

Equates group with vermin, animals, insects or disease

Hate propaganda is printed

Hate radio used to vilify the group

Isolation


Anti-Jewish Signage


Hutu Radio – Rwandan Genocide

Used terms “cockroaches” & “tall trees”


ORGANIZATION:

Plans made for genocidal killing

Genocide is always organized

Militia often trained by army units

Can be informal and/or decentralized

Isolation


Interahamwe & Janjaweed


POLARIZATION:

Extremists drive groups apart

Broadcast polarizing propaganda

Laws forbid intermarriage/social interaction

Targeting of moderates

Disenfranchisement


Nuremberg Laws


Attacks on Moderates in Rwanda


PREPARATION:

Victims are separated out because of a certain characteristic Segregated or confined

Death lists written up

Symbols used

Property expropriated

Disenfranchisement


A Crate Full of Rings Confiscated from Prisoners

Crates of Silverware

Taken from Prisoners


The Warsaw ghetto was sealed with walls.


This brick wall was built sealing the Warsaw ghetto off from the rest of the city.


Auschwitz-Birkenau


Thereseinstadt


Awarehouse full of shoes and clothing confiscated from the prisoners and deportees gassed upon their arrival


A large pile of brushes, that were confiscated from arriving prisoners, are stored in one of the warehouses in Auschwitz


One of the warehouses in Auschwitz, which is stuffed to overflowing with clothes confiscated from prisoners


Kristallnacht

November 10, 1938Night of Broken Glass


EXTERMINATION:

Wiping out of a group or culture

Victims are not entirely ‘human’

Downward spiral in society as a whole

Armed forces work with militias when state-sponsored

Extermination


Majdanek: Death Camp


A prisoner who has been

subjected to low pressure

experimentation. For the

benefit of the Luftwaffe,

air pressure was created

comparable to that found

at 15,000 meters in altitude,

in an effort to determine how

high German pilots could

fly and survive.


Prisoners on a forced march from Dachau concentration camp


Gas Chambers


Gas Chambers


DENIAL

  • Not part of Hilberg’s 4 stages

  • Sure signs of genocide; mass graves, evidence of deaths

  • Deny crimes, blame events on victims, block investigations

  • Cover up evidence; intimidate witnesses


Genocidewatch’s 8 Stages

Hilberg’s 4 Stages

  • Classification

  • Symbolization

  • Dehumanization

  • Organization

  • Polarization

  • Preparation

  • Extermination

  • Denial

  • Identify

  • Isolation

  • Disenfranchisement

  • Extermination


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