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The Civil War. United States History. Problems in the Union. Compromise of 1850 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Dred Scott Decision Kansas – Nebraska Act Harper’s Ferry Sectionalism Presidential Election of 1860. Northern Republicans. Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere

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The civil war

The Civil War

United States History


Problems in the union
Problems in the Union

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Dred Scott Decision

  • Kansas – Nebraska Act

  • Harper’s Ferry

  • Sectionalism

  • Presidential Election of 1860


Northern republicans
Northern Republicans

  • Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere

  • Many Northerners who were against slavery joined the new Republican party


Southern beliefs
Southern Beliefs

  • End of slavery and the Southern way of life

  • Southern leaders felt that states had supreme power – they entered the Union voluntarily, and they should be able to leave it voluntarily

  • Decided to secede, or withdraw, from the Union


Presidential election of 1860
Presidential Election of 1860

  • 1860: Presidential Election

    • 4 candidates:

      • Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas

      • Southern Democrats: John Breckinridge

      • Constitutional Union: John Bell

      • Republican: Abraham Lincoln

  • South said if Lincoln was elected, it was their duty to secede

Lincoln

Douglas


Presidential election of 18601
Presidential Election of 1860

  • Lincoln won with 59% of the electoral vote and 39.5% of the popular vote


Presidential election of 18602
Presidential Election of 1860

Sectionalism – excessive regard for local interest


Sectionalism
Sectionalism

An exaggerated devotion to the interests of a region


Presidential election of 18603
Presidential Election of 1860

  • Most Southerners believed Lincoln was an abolitionist

  • Felt secession was their only choice

  • Used the Declaration of Independence to support their argument:

    • “…it is the right of the people to alter or abolish…” a government that denies the rights of its citizens.


1860

  • Lincoln is elected President

  • Southern states believed they had a right to leave the Union, or secede, from the U.S.

  • President Lincoln said they had no right to leave it and vowed he would preserve the nation at all costs



Confederacy is formed
Confederacy is Formed association, or alliance

  • The states that withdrew from the Union met in Montgomery, Alabama

    • The new nation will be called the Confederate States of America (CSA)

    • The new constitution gives states more power and guaranteed the protection of slavery


Confederate southern states
Confederate (Southern) States association, or alliance

  • Alabama

  • Arkansas

  • Florida

  • Georgia

  • Louisiana

  • Mississippi

  • North Carolina

  • South Carolina

  • Tennessee

  • Texas

  • Virginia



New government
New Government beginning in 1861

  • Jefferson Davis is elected the President of The Confederate States of America

  • Alexander Stephens was chosen as Vice President


Union northern states
Union (Northern) States beginning in 1861

  • California

  • Connecticut

  • Delaware

  • Illinois

  • Indiana

  • Iowa

  • Kansas

  • Kentucky

  • Maine

  • Maryland ***

  • Massachusetts

  • Michigan

  • Minnesota

  • Missouri ***

  • New Hampshire

  • New Jersey

  • New York

  • Ohio

  • Oregon

  • Pennsylvania

  • Rhode Island

  • Vermont

  • West Virginia

  • Wisconsin

*** Slave states, but they did not secede


Lincoln s plan
Lincoln’s Plan beginning in 1861

  • Cut the Confederacy in two by capturing the Mississippi River

  • Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia

  • Blockade the Confederate coastline


Battle of fort sumter 1861
Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861 beginning in 1861

  • Where the American Civil War began

  • Decades of growing strife between North and South erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861

  • Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor

  • Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later

  • Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back


1861 beginning in 1861

  • Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Blockade against Southern ports

    • Believed the war would last about 90 days

  • Lee accepts command of the Confederate military


Battle of bull run 1861
Battle of Bull Run, 1861 beginning in 1861

  • First major battle of the Civil War

  • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate General) shot and had arm amputated

  • Union retreated to the safety of Washington


1862 beginning in 1861

  • Naval warfare changed

    • When the war began, naval battles were fought in wooden ships

    • In months, they were experimenting with ironclad ships, submarines, and torpedoes

  • New Orleans taken over by Union


Battle of antietam 1862
Battle of Antietam, 1862 beginning in 1861

  • First battle to take place on Union soil

  • Bloodiest one day battle in American history

  • 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours

  • Led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation


1863 beginning in 1861

  • Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation

  • U.S. Congress enacts a draft


Battle of gettysburg 1863
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 beginning in 1861

  • Battle with the largest number of casualties

  • Between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties

  • Turning point of the Civil War – North has more man power


Gettysburg address 1863
Gettysburg Address, 1863 beginning in 1861

  • Lasted less than three minutes,

    • Principles of human equality in the Declaration of Independence

    • Proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union started by the secession crisis

    • Birth of freedom "that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, ensuring that democracy would remain a viable form of government and creating a nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.”

    • Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality.


Battle of vicksburg 1863
Battle of Vicksburg, 1863 beginning in 1861

  • Major battle for the control of the Mississippi River

  • North wins


1864 beginning in 1861

  • Ulysses S. Grant

  • General Grant appointed commander of the U.S.

  • Atlanta is captured


Sherman s march to the sea
Sherman’s March to the Sea beginning in 1861

  • Sherman's troops captured the city of Atlanta, Georgia

  • Sherman's forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property on the way to the Atlantic Ocean

  • Destroyed much of the South's physical and psychological capacity to wage war


Lincoln is re elected
Lincoln is Re-elected beginning in 1861

  • On November 8, Lincoln won by more than 400,000 popular votes

  • Lincoln was the first president to be re-elected since Andrew Jackson


Surrender at appomattox
Surrender at Appomattox beginning in 1861

  • Lee’s men would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason

  • Grant also allowed the defeated men to take home their horses and mules to carry out the spring planting and provided Lee with a supply of food rations for his starving army

  • Lee said it would have a very happy effect among the men and do much toward reconciling the country


Lincoln is assassinated
Lincoln is Assassinated beginning in 1861

  • April 14, 1865

  • 5 days after Lee surrendered

  • Planned and carried out by John Wilkes Booth


1865 beginning in 1861

  • Congress approves 13th amendment

  • Confederate Capital, Richmond, evacuated

  • Lincoln’s killer, Booth, is shot and killed

  • 13th amendment ratified, slavery is abolished



President
President beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Jefferson Davis

Abraham Lincoln


Capital
Capital beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Richmond, VA

Washington D.C.


Population
Population beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

9 million people

3.5 million were slaves

  • 22 million people

    • More people to pay taxes and fight


Colors
Colors beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Gray

Blue


Names
Names beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Confederate States of America

CSA

Rebels

South

  • United States of America

  • U.S.A.

  • Yankees

  • North


Military leaders
Military Leaders beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Robert E. Lee (commander)

George Pickett

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

Albert Sydney Johnston

  • Ulysses S. Grant (commander)

  • George McClellan

  • George Meade

  • William Sherman


Military forces
Military Forces beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Fighting on familiar land

More experienced soldiers

Better trained military

Better leaders

Defense

Not very experienced

Poorly trained army

Offense


Crops
Crops beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Grew cotton

Food shortages

Grew food


Industry
Industry beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

19% of all factories

10% of all skilled workers

Had to make it or buy from Europe

  • 81% of all factories

  • 90% of all skilled workers


Government
Government beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Newly formed government

Heavy emphasis on states’ rights

Difficult for President to centralize power

Established government


Transportation
Transportation beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

9,000 miles of railroad tracks

Small navy

22,000 miles of railroad tracks

Navy

Merchant Marines

Canals


Finances money
Finances - Money beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Controlled 30% of nation’s wealth

Financial crisis: keeps printing money with nothing to backit up

Controlled 70% of nation’s wealth


Feelings towards war
Feelings towards War beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Felt the war would protect their way of life

More unity

More support

Not everyone supported the war

Children dying


Armies
Armies beginning in 1861

Union

Confederacy

Easy to get recruits at first

Over 18

Eventually had to draft soldiers

Could hire a substitute

If you had more than 20 slaves

  • Easy to get recruits at first

    • Over 18

  • Eventually had to draft soldiers

  • Could hire a substitute

    • If you paid $300


Casualties deaths
Casualties beginning in 1861 (Deaths)

Union

Confederacy

Killed in action: 94,000

Deaths from Diseases: 164,000

TOTAL: 258,000

Killed in action: 110,070

Deaths from Diseases: 250,152

TOTAL: 360,222


Deaths
Deaths beginning in 1861

  • Of the 620,000 soldiers who died during the Civil War, two-thirds died not of bullets and bayonets, but of disease and infection

    • Unsanitary conditions

    • Poor diet

    • Diarrhea

    • Dysentery


After spring break museum exhibits
After Spring Break: beginning in 1861 Museum Exhibits


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