The civil war
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The Civil War. United States History. Problems in the Union. Compromise of 1850 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Dred Scott Decision Kansas – Nebraska Act Harper’s Ferry Sectionalism Presidential Election of 1860. Northern Republicans. Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere

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The Civil War

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The Civil War

United States History

Problems in the Union

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Dred Scott Decision

  • Kansas – Nebraska Act

  • Harper’s Ferry

  • Sectionalism

  • Presidential Election of 1860

Northern Republicans

  • Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere

  • Many Northerners who were against slavery joined the new Republican party

Southern Beliefs

  • End of slavery and the Southern way of life

  • Southern leaders felt that states had supreme power – they entered the Union voluntarily, and they should be able to leave it voluntarily

  • Decided to secede, or withdraw, from the Union

Presidential Election of 1860

  • 1860: Presidential Election

    • 4 candidates:

      • Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas

      • Southern Democrats: John Breckinridge

      • Constitutional Union: John Bell

      • Republican: Abraham Lincoln

  • South said if Lincoln was elected, it was their duty to secede



Presidential Election of 1860

  • Lincoln won with 59% of the electoral vote and 39.5% of the popular vote

Presidential Election of 1860

Sectionalism – excessive regard for local interest


An exaggerated devotion to the interests of a region

Presidential Election of 1860

  • Most Southerners believed Lincoln was an abolitionist

  • Felt secession was their only choice

  • Used the Declaration of Independence to support their argument:

    • “…it is the right of the people to alter or abolish…” a government that denies the rights of its citizens.


  • Lincoln is elected President

  • Southern states believed they had a right to leave the Union, or secede, from the U.S.

  • President Lincoln said they had no right to leave it and vowed he would preserve the nation at all costs

To withdraw formally from membership in an organization, association, or alliance


Confederacy is Formed

  • The states that withdrew from the Union met in Montgomery, Alabama

    • The new nation will be called the Confederate States of America (CSA)

    • The new constitution gives states more power and guaranteed the protection of slavery

Confederate (Southern) States

  • Alabama

  • Arkansas

  • Florida

  • Georgia

  • Louisiana

  • Mississippi

  • North Carolina

  • South Carolina

  • Tennessee

  • Texas

  • Virginia

The southern states that seceded from the United States beginning in 1861


New Government

  • Jefferson Davis is elected the President of The Confederate States of America

  • Alexander Stephens was chosen as Vice President

Union (Northern) States

  • California

  • Connecticut

  • Delaware

  • Illinois

  • Indiana

  • Iowa

  • Kansas

  • Kentucky

  • Maine

  • Maryland ***

  • Massachusetts

  • Michigan

  • Minnesota

  • Missouri ***

  • New Hampshire

  • New Jersey

  • New York

  • Ohio

  • Oregon

  • Pennsylvania

  • Rhode Island

  • Vermont

  • West Virginia

  • Wisconsin

*** Slave states, but they did not secede

Lincoln’s Plan

  • Cut the Confederacy in two by capturing the Mississippi River

  • Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia

  • Blockade the Confederate coastline

Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861

  • Where the American Civil War began

  • Decades of growing strife between North and South erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861

  • Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor

  • Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later

  • Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back


  • Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Blockade against Southern ports

    • Believed the war would last about 90 days

  • Lee accepts command of the Confederate military

Battle of Bull Run, 1861

  • First major battle of the Civil War

  • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate General) shot and had arm amputated

  • Union retreated to the safety of Washington


  • Naval warfare changed

    • When the war began, naval battles were fought in wooden ships

    • In months, they were experimenting with ironclad ships, submarines, and torpedoes

  • New Orleans taken over by Union

Battle of Antietam, 1862

  • First battle to take place on Union soil

  • Bloodiest one day battle in American history

  • 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours

  • Led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation


  • Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation

  • U.S. Congress enacts a draft

Battle of Gettysburg, 1863

  • Battle with the largest number of casualties

  • Between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties

  • Turning point of the Civil War – North has more man power

Gettysburg Address, 1863

  • Lasted less than three minutes,

    • Principles of human equality in the Declaration of Independence

    • Proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union started by the secession crisis

    • Birth of freedom "that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, ensuring that democracy would remain a viable form of government and creating a nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.”

    • Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality.

Battle of Vicksburg, 1863

  • Major battle for the control of the Mississippi River

  • North wins


  • Ulysses S. Grant

  • General Grant appointed commander of the U.S.

  • Atlanta is captured

Sherman’s March to the Sea

  • Sherman's troops captured the city of Atlanta, Georgia

  • Sherman's forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property on the way to the Atlantic Ocean

  • Destroyed much of the South's physical and psychological capacity to wage war

Lincoln is Re-elected

  • On November 8, Lincoln won by more than 400,000 popular votes

  • Lincoln was the first president to be re-elected since Andrew Jackson

Surrender at Appomattox

  • Lee’s men would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason

  • Grant also allowed the defeated men to take home their horses and mules to carry out the spring planting and provided Lee with a supply of food rations for his starving army

  • Lee said it would have a very happy effect among the men and do much toward reconciling the country

Lincoln is Assassinated

  • April 14, 1865

  • 5 days after Lee surrendered

  • Planned and carried out by John Wilkes Booth


  • Congress approves 13th amendment

  • Confederate Capital, Richmond, evacuated

  • Lincoln’s killer, Booth, is shot and killed

  • 13th amendment ratified, slavery is abolished

An addition to a formal document such as a constitution





Jefferson Davis

Abraham Lincoln




Richmond, VA

Washington D.C.




9 million people

3.5 million were slaves

  • 22 million people

    • More people to pay taxes and fight









Confederate States of America




  • United States of America

  • U.S.A.

  • Yankees

  • North

Military Leaders



Robert E. Lee (commander)

George Pickett

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

Albert Sydney Johnston

  • Ulysses S. Grant (commander)

  • George McClellan

  • George Meade

  • William Sherman

Military Forces



Fighting on familiar land

More experienced soldiers

Better trained military

Better leaders


Not very experienced

Poorly trained army





Grew cotton

Food shortages

Grew food




19% of all factories

10% of all skilled workers

Had to make it or buy from Europe

  • 81% of all factories

  • 90% of all skilled workers




Newly formed government

Heavy emphasis on states’ rights

Difficult for President to centralize power

Established government




9,000 miles of railroad tracks

Small navy

22,000 miles of railroad tracks


Merchant Marines


Finances - Money



Controlled 30% of nation’s wealth

Financial crisis: keeps printing money with nothing to backit up

Controlled 70% of nation’s wealth

Feelings towards War



Felt the war would protect their way of life

More unity

More support

Not everyone supported the war

Children dying




Easy to get recruits at first

Over 18

Eventually had to draft soldiers

Could hire a substitute

If you had more than 20 slaves

  • Easy to get recruits at first

    • Over 18

  • Eventually had to draft soldiers

  • Could hire a substitute

    • If you paid $300

Casualties (Deaths)



Killed in action: 94,000

Deaths from Diseases: 164,000

TOTAL: 258,000

Killed in action: 110,070

Deaths from Diseases: 250,152

TOTAL: 360,222


  • Of the 620,000 soldiers who died during the Civil War, two-thirds died not of bullets and bayonets, but of disease and infection

    • Unsanitary conditions

    • Poor diet

    • Diarrhea

    • Dysentery

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