The civil war
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The Civil War. United States History. Problems in the Union. Compromise of 1850 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Dred Scott Decision Kansas – Nebraska Act Harper’s Ferry Sectionalism Presidential Election of 1860. Northern Republicans. Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere

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The Civil War

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The civil war

The Civil War

United States History


Problems in the union

Problems in the Union

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Dred Scott Decision

  • Kansas – Nebraska Act

  • Harper’s Ferry

  • Sectionalism

  • Presidential Election of 1860


Northern republicans

Northern Republicans

  • Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere

  • Many Northerners who were against slavery joined the new Republican party


Southern beliefs

Southern Beliefs

  • End of slavery and the Southern way of life

  • Southern leaders felt that states had supreme power – they entered the Union voluntarily, and they should be able to leave it voluntarily

  • Decided to secede, or withdraw, from the Union


Presidential election of 1860

Presidential Election of 1860

  • 1860: Presidential Election

    • 4 candidates:

      • Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas

      • Southern Democrats: John Breckinridge

      • Constitutional Union: John Bell

      • Republican: Abraham Lincoln

  • South said if Lincoln was elected, it was their duty to secede

Lincoln

Douglas


Presidential election of 18601

Presidential Election of 1860

  • Lincoln won with 59% of the electoral vote and 39.5% of the popular vote


Presidential election of 18602

Presidential Election of 1860

Sectionalism – excessive regard for local interest


Sectionalism

Sectionalism

An exaggerated devotion to the interests of a region


Presidential election of 18603

Presidential Election of 1860

  • Most Southerners believed Lincoln was an abolitionist

  • Felt secession was their only choice

  • Used the Declaration of Independence to support their argument:

    • “…it is the right of the people to alter or abolish…” a government that denies the rights of its citizens.


The civil war 2587305

1860

  • Lincoln is elected President

  • Southern states believed they had a right to leave the Union, or secede, from the U.S.

  • President Lincoln said they had no right to leave it and vowed he would preserve the nation at all costs


Secede

To withdraw formally from membership in an organization, association, or alliance

Secede


Confederacy is formed

Confederacy is Formed

  • The states that withdrew from the Union met in Montgomery, Alabama

    • The new nation will be called the Confederate States of America (CSA)

    • The new constitution gives states more power and guaranteed the protection of slavery


Confederate southern states

Confederate (Southern) States

  • Alabama

  • Arkansas

  • Florida

  • Georgia

  • Louisiana

  • Mississippi

  • North Carolina

  • South Carolina

  • Tennessee

  • Texas

  • Virginia


Confederacy

The southern states that seceded from the United States beginning in 1861

Confederacy


New government

New Government

  • Jefferson Davis is elected the President of The Confederate States of America

  • Alexander Stephens was chosen as Vice President


Union northern states

Union (Northern) States

  • California

  • Connecticut

  • Delaware

  • Illinois

  • Indiana

  • Iowa

  • Kansas

  • Kentucky

  • Maine

  • Maryland ***

  • Massachusetts

  • Michigan

  • Minnesota

  • Missouri ***

  • New Hampshire

  • New Jersey

  • New York

  • Ohio

  • Oregon

  • Pennsylvania

  • Rhode Island

  • Vermont

  • West Virginia

  • Wisconsin

*** Slave states, but they did not secede


Lincoln s plan

Lincoln’s Plan

  • Cut the Confederacy in two by capturing the Mississippi River

  • Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia

  • Blockade the Confederate coastline


Battle of fort sumter 1861

Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861

  • Where the American Civil War began

  • Decades of growing strife between North and South erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861

  • Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor

  • Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later

  • Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back


The civil war 2587305

1861

  • Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Blockade against Southern ports

    • Believed the war would last about 90 days

  • Lee accepts command of the Confederate military


Battle of bull run 1861

Battle of Bull Run, 1861

  • First major battle of the Civil War

  • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate General) shot and had arm amputated

  • Union retreated to the safety of Washington


The civil war 2587305

1862

  • Naval warfare changed

    • When the war began, naval battles were fought in wooden ships

    • In months, they were experimenting with ironclad ships, submarines, and torpedoes

  • New Orleans taken over by Union


Battle of antietam 1862

Battle of Antietam, 1862

  • First battle to take place on Union soil

  • Bloodiest one day battle in American history

  • 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours

  • Led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation


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1863

  • Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation

  • U.S. Congress enacts a draft


Battle of gettysburg 1863

Battle of Gettysburg, 1863

  • Battle with the largest number of casualties

  • Between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties

  • Turning point of the Civil War – North has more man power


Gettysburg address 1863

Gettysburg Address, 1863

  • Lasted less than three minutes,

    • Principles of human equality in the Declaration of Independence

    • Proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union started by the secession crisis

    • Birth of freedom "that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, ensuring that democracy would remain a viable form of government and creating a nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.”

    • Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality.


Battle of vicksburg 1863

Battle of Vicksburg, 1863

  • Major battle for the control of the Mississippi River

  • North wins


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1864

  • Ulysses S. Grant

  • General Grant appointed commander of the U.S.

  • Atlanta is captured


Sherman s march to the sea

Sherman’s March to the Sea

  • Sherman's troops captured the city of Atlanta, Georgia

  • Sherman's forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property on the way to the Atlantic Ocean

  • Destroyed much of the South's physical and psychological capacity to wage war


Lincoln is re elected

Lincoln is Re-elected

  • On November 8, Lincoln won by more than 400,000 popular votes

  • Lincoln was the first president to be re-elected since Andrew Jackson


Surrender at appomattox

Surrender at Appomattox

  • Lee’s men would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason

  • Grant also allowed the defeated men to take home their horses and mules to carry out the spring planting and provided Lee with a supply of food rations for his starving army

  • Lee said it would have a very happy effect among the men and do much toward reconciling the country


Lincoln is assassinated

Lincoln is Assassinated

  • April 14, 1865

  • 5 days after Lee surrendered

  • Planned and carried out by John Wilkes Booth


The civil war 2587305

1865

  • Congress approves 13th amendment

  • Confederate Capital, Richmond, evacuated

  • Lincoln’s killer, Booth, is shot and killed

  • 13th amendment ratified, slavery is abolished


Amendment

An addition to a formal document such as a constitution

Amendment


President

President

Union

Confederacy

Jefferson Davis

Abraham Lincoln


Capital

Capital

Union

Confederacy

Richmond, VA

Washington D.C.


Population

Population

Union

Confederacy

9 million people

3.5 million were slaves

  • 22 million people

    • More people to pay taxes and fight


Colors

Colors

Union

Confederacy

Gray

Blue


Names

Names

Union

Confederacy

Confederate States of America

CSA

Rebels

South

  • United States of America

  • U.S.A.

  • Yankees

  • North


Military leaders

Military Leaders

Union

Confederacy

Robert E. Lee (commander)

George Pickett

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

Albert Sydney Johnston

  • Ulysses S. Grant (commander)

  • George McClellan

  • George Meade

  • William Sherman


Military forces

Military Forces

Union

Confederacy

Fighting on familiar land

More experienced soldiers

Better trained military

Better leaders

Defense

Not very experienced

Poorly trained army

Offense


Crops

Crops

Union

Confederacy

Grew cotton

Food shortages

Grew food


Industry

Industry

Union

Confederacy

19% of all factories

10% of all skilled workers

Had to make it or buy from Europe

  • 81% of all factories

  • 90% of all skilled workers


Government

Government

Union

Confederacy

Newly formed government

Heavy emphasis on states’ rights

Difficult for President to centralize power

Established government


Transportation

Transportation

Union

Confederacy

9,000 miles of railroad tracks

Small navy

22,000 miles of railroad tracks

Navy

Merchant Marines

Canals


Finances money

Finances - Money

Union

Confederacy

Controlled 30% of nation’s wealth

Financial crisis: keeps printing money with nothing to backit up

Controlled 70% of nation’s wealth


Feelings towards war

Feelings towards War

Union

Confederacy

Felt the war would protect their way of life

More unity

More support

Not everyone supported the war

Children dying


Armies

Armies

Union

Confederacy

Easy to get recruits at first

Over 18

Eventually had to draft soldiers

Could hire a substitute

If you had more than 20 slaves

  • Easy to get recruits at first

    • Over 18

  • Eventually had to draft soldiers

  • Could hire a substitute

    • If you paid $300


Casualties deaths

Casualties (Deaths)

Union

Confederacy

Killed in action: 94,000

Deaths from Diseases: 164,000

TOTAL: 258,000

Killed in action: 110,070

Deaths from Diseases: 250,152

TOTAL: 360,222


Deaths

Deaths

  • Of the 620,000 soldiers who died during the Civil War, two-thirds died not of bullets and bayonets, but of disease and infection

    • Unsanitary conditions

    • Poor diet

    • Diarrhea

    • Dysentery


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