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A pragmatic solution to differentiation in the English language classroom. For a copy of this presentation please contact: [email protected] Presenter. Wendy Arnold MA in Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL – York) PCEd (HK) Freelance teacher, trainer, writer, researcher
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For a copy of this presentation please contact:
MA in Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL – York)
Freelance teacher, trainer, writer, researcher
IATEFL’s YLT SIG committee
Specialist in reading for young learner literacy
15 years experience teaching Chinese young learners
Trained teachers in Asia, Africa and Europe
Part i) Data on the longitudinal study
Part ii) Understanding why the right reading level is important
Part iii) Quick assessment to check ‘right’ reading level
Part iv) Applying reading strategies
A ‘one-size fits all’ does not appear to meet the needs of all the learners in one class. BUT what are the ranges of abilities in:
What materials could close the gap between a coursebook and individual needs?
Average level 5.9
Average level 9.2
Average level 14.6
Average level 18.5
Average level 23.1
Average level 23.4
End Primary 3
Ave level 8.5
End Primary 6
Ave level 23.7
End Primary 4
Ave level 13.5
End Primary 5
Ave level 18.2
cohorts 1-4A = started aged 9/10 years
Formative assessment age 7-8 years = 1 year/170 hours of ELT
Answering questions accompanying text
Reading text out loud
Silent reading of testing text
if questions cannot be answered, lower level texts are tried
if text cannot be read, lower level texts are tried
ALL GROUPS (2 teachers are timetabled at the same time)
not every lesson)
‘Reading is much more than the decoding of black marks upon a page; it is a quest for meaning and one which requires the reader to be an active participant’ (Cox 1991)
The reader needs to:
Three cue systems (Kelly 2008)
YOU HAVE A GO!
‘Little Teddy! Little Teddy! Where are you going?’
‘Can I come too?’ said Mouse.
‘Can I come to the shops?’
Look at the big puddle!’
‘Oh! Oh!’ he said.
‘Where am I?
‘You are in a big puddle’ said Little Teddy.
‘Come on, Mouse,’ said Little Teddy.
‘Up you come.’
Read these questions and tell your partner the answers
What kind of questions are these?
Which is the easiest to answer?
Which is the most difficult?
Which makes you think?
What do you think about the use of Chinese?
Remember this is about understanding meaning!
4. Listen carefully and on a piece of paper tick all the correct words you hear and put a circle around the incorrect ones (you could write the word and circle the part that is incorrect)
Eg. I am going to the shops.
5. Count up the number of errors
We think that between 92-94% accuracy leads to learning.
What do you think reading out loud tells the teacher?
What age group do you think would enjoy this text?
Finding text which is low reading ability but high interest is a challenge!
We want learners to be able to understand text but this means it has to be at the ‘right’ reading level for them, as well as interesting!
Read the text silently.
Do you understand what it is about?
Can you explain it to a partner?
Although some glial cells have voltage-gated ion channels in their membranes, glial cells generally do not produce action potentials and their role in the nervous system has long been a puzzle. One suggestion has been that glial cells help to regulate the concentration of K+ and the pH in the extracellular fluid of the nervous system.
Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to K+ and adjacent glial cells are often electrically coupled by junctions that allow K+ to flow between them. This flux permits glial cells to take up and redistribute extracellular K+, which otherwise could build up to high concentrations in narrow extracellular spaces following activity in neurons.
Work with a partner.
Take it in turns.
Read the text out to each other.
What does the text mean?
How does it feel to read?
Can you understand what you are reading?
What are you missing?
Glial cells are found in the brain.
There are five types of glial cells.
They are not nerve cells.
Neurons transmit nerve messages.
Glial cells are in direct contact with
neurons and often surround them.
Now what can you explain about
Where can you find them?
What do glial cells do?
What helped you understand better?
What language skills are you using?
If you can’t do this, then you are not reading the right level!
What have you learnt today?
What can you do to make sure that your learners individual needs are being met?
What can you do to make the coursebook more meaningful to your learners?