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A pragmatic solution to differentiation in the English language classroom. For a copy of this presentation please contact: [email protected] Presenter. Wendy Arnold MA in Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL – York) PCEd (HK) Freelance teacher, trainer, writer, researcher

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A pragmatic solution to differentiation in the english language classroom
A pragmatic solution to differentiation in the English language classroom

For a copy of this presentation please contact:

[email protected]


Presenter
Presenter language classroom

Wendy Arnold

MA in Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL – York)

PCEd (HK)

Freelance teacher, trainer, writer, researcher

IATEFL’s YLT SIG committee

Specialist in reading for young learner literacy

15 years experience teaching Chinese young learners

Trained teachers in Asia, Africa and Europe


Overview
Overview language classroom

Part i) Data on the longitudinal study

Part ii) Understanding why the right reading level is important

Part iii) Quick assessment to check ‘right’ reading level

Part iv) Applying reading strategies


Rationale for study
Rationale for study language classroom

A ‘one-size fits all’ does not appear to meet the needs of all the learners in one class. BUT what are the ranges of abilities in:

  • One class

  • One yeargroup

    What materials could close the gap between a coursebook and individual needs?


Part i background to longitudinal study
Part i) Background to longitudinal study language classroom

  • 6 years study in Hong Kong

  • Pilot for 9/10 year olds for one year

  • 2004 continued study for 9-12 year olds

  • 2005 continued study for 8-12 year olds

  • 2006 continued for study 7-12 year olds

  • Used published 30 level reading scheme

  • Placement for reading level = 1:1 assessment with teacher based on comprehension of text and reading aloud


Micro level individual assessment up close
Micro level language classroomIndividual assessment - up close

summative

formative


Macro level - Profile of a Primary 1 class +1 year of English language teaching – no reading scheme (scheduled to do 5 years)

Average level 5.9


Macro level - Profile of a Primary 2 class +2 years of English language teaching – +1 year reading scheme (scheduled to do 4 years)

Average level 9.2


Macro level - Profile of a Primary 3 class +3 years of English language teaching – +1 year reading scheme (scheduled to do 4 years)

Average level 14.6


Macro level - Profile of a Primary 4 class +4 years of English language teaching – +2 years reading scheme (scheduled to do 4 years)

Average level 18.5


Macro level - Profile of a Primary 5 class +5 years of English language teaching – +2 years reading scheme (scheduled to do 3 years)

Average level 23.1


Macro level - Profile of a Primary 6 class +6 year of English language teaching – +3 years reading scheme (end of 3 years)

Average level 23.4


Micro level tracking 2003 4 cohort no 1 from formative to summative by levels
Micro level - Tracking 2003-4 cohort no. 1 from formative to summative by levels

FORMATIVE

End Primary 3

Ave level 8.5

SUMMATIVE

End Primary 6

Ave level 23.7

End Primary 4

Ave level 13.5

End Primary 5

Ave level 18.2


Macro level tracking yearbands
Macro level -tracking yearbands summative by levels

Key:

cohorts 1-4A = started aged 9/10 years


You can track compare and predict
You can track, compare and predict summative by levels

  • Individual child’s progress (can indicate learning problem)

  • Class progress (sometimes indicates problem with teaching style)

  • Yeargroup progress

  • Compare yeargroup to yeargroup

  • Predict summative levels based on previous performance

  • Build results back into teaching and learning


Assessment procedure for reading level
Assessment procedure for reading level summative by levels

Formative assessment age 7-8 years = 1 year/170 hours of ELT

Answering questions accompanying text

Reading text out loud

Silent reading of testing text

Starting level

if questions cannot be answered, lower level texts are tried

if text cannot be read, lower level texts are tried


Procedure for classroom management of the reading scheme used in hong kong
Procedure for classroom management of the reading scheme used in Hong Kong

ALL GROUPS (2 teachers are timetabled at the same time)

Plenary

with

Specific

input on

reading

strategy

YL

selecting

correct

level of

text

Silent

Reading

Buddy

Reading

Comprehension

Task (optional

not every lesson)

1:1 Teacher

Conferencing

And

Facilitating


Part ii what is reading
Part ii) What is reading? used in Hong Kong

‘Reading is much more than the decoding of black marks upon a page; it is a quest for meaning and one which requires the reader to be an active participant’ (Cox 1991)

The reader needs to:

  • Crack the code or decipher the print (decode)

  • Reading is about making sense which ‘powers young children’s learning’ (understand meaning)

  • Reading brings together text to be decoded and understood and a reader has to engage actively with both these processes (Kelly 2008)


Reading strategies
Reading strategies used in Hong Kong

Three cue systems (Kelly 2008)

  • Semantic (语义学) = reader draws on meaning from the text itself but also from their own background knowledge and from other texts

  • Syntactic (句法) = readers draws upon what they know of language and grammar (spoken and written) in order to PREDICT what is coming next eg. A child who comes across ‘ice creams melt in the sun’ is not likely to say ‘ice creams meet in the sun’

  • Graphophonic (字形与字音) = readers use what they know about the sound-symbol correspondences, visual knowledge of letter combinations and sight vocabulary e.g. m - e – l – t


Part iii quick assessment to find right reading level
Part iii) Quick assessment to find right reading level used in Hong Kong

  • You need about 95-100 words of text which you think is at a suitable level for your learner

  • The learner reads the text and looks at the pictures which accompany it

  • This text is level 5 (level 1 = easiest, level 30 = most difficult)

    YOU HAVE A GO!


Mouse said, used in Hong Kong

‘Little Teddy! Little Teddy! Where are you going?’


‘I am going to the shops,’ said Little Teddy. used in Hong Kong

‘Can I come too?’ said Mouse.

‘Can I come to the shops?’


‘Mouse! Mouse!’ shouted Little Teddy. used in Hong Kong

‘Look down!

Look at the big puddle!’


Mouse went into the puddle. used in Hong Kong

‘Oh! Oh!’ he said.


‘Where am I?’ said Mouse. used in Hong Kong

‘Where am I?

‘You are in a big puddle’ said Little Teddy.


Mouse said, ‘Look at me!’ used in Hong Kong

‘Come on, Mouse,’ said Little Teddy.

‘Up you come.’




Making meaning semantics
Making meaning – semantics used in Hong Kong(语义学)

THINK-PAIR

Read these questions and tell your partner the answers

  • Where was Little Teddy going?

  • Who fell in the puddle?

  • Why do you think Mouse went home with Little Teddy?


Think pair share
THINK-PAIR-SHARE used in Hong Kong

What kind of questions are these?

Which is the easiest to answer?

Why?

Which is the most difficult?

Why?

Which makes you think?

Why?


Making meaning
Making meaning used in Hong Kong

  • Listen to the questions and the answers

  • Focus on the meaning, has this learner understood the text?


Think pair share1
THINK-PAIR-SHARE used in Hong Kong

What do you think about the use of Chinese?

Remember this is about understanding meaning!


Decoding or reading out loud graphophonics
Decoding or reading out loud = graphophonics used in Hong Kong(字形与字音)

4. Listen carefully and on a piece of paper tick  all the correct words you hear and put a circle around the incorrect ones (you could write the word and circle the part that is incorrect)

    

Eg. I am going to the shops.

5. Count up the number of errors


Count the number of errors and divide by the number of words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

We think that between 92-94% accuracy leads to learning.


Think pair share2
THINK-PAIR-SHARE words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What do you think reading out loud tells the teacher?

Is this

READING?

SPEAKING?

SOMETHING ELSE?


Think
THINK words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What age group do you think would enjoy this text?

Finding text which is low reading ability but high interest is a challenge!

We want learners to be able to understand text but this means it has to be at the ‘right’ reading level for them, as well as interesting!


Part iv applying reading strategies
Part iv) Applying reading strategies words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

THINK

Read the text silently.

Do you understand what it is about?

THINK-PAIR

Can you explain it to a partner?


Part a
Part A) words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

Although some glial cells have voltage-gated ion channels in their membranes, glial cells generally do not produce action potentials and their role in the nervous system has long been a puzzle. One suggestion has been that glial cells help to regulate the concentration of K+ and the pH in the extracellular fluid of the nervous system.


Part b
Part B) words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to K+ and adjacent glial cells are often electrically coupled by junctions that allow K+ to flow between them. This flux permits glial cells to take up and redistribute extracellular K+, which otherwise could build up to high concentrations in narrow extracellular spaces following activity in neurons.


Think1
THINK words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What language skills are you using?


PAIR words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

Work with a partner.

Take it in turns.

Read the text out to each other.


Reading out loud share
Reading out loud - SHARE words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What does the text mean?

How does it feel to read?

Can you understand what you are reading?

What are you missing?


Think2
THINK words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What language skills are you using?


Now read this text to yourself
Now read this text to yourself words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

Glial cells are found in the brain.

There are five types of glial cells.

They are not nerve cells.

Neurons transmit nerve messages.

Glial cells are in direct contact with

neurons and often surround them.


Look at the picture
Look at the picture words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

Glial cells


Aiding comprehensible input think pair share
Aiding comprehensible input words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.THINK-PAIR-SHARE

Now what can you explain about

glial cells?

Where can you find them?

What do glial cells do?

What helped you understand better?


Think share
THINK-SHARE words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What language skills are you using?


The purpose of reading is to make sense. words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

If you can’t do this, then you are not reading the right level!


Reflect
REFLECT words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.

What have you learnt today?

What can you do to make sure that your learners individual needs are being met?

What can you do to make the coursebook more meaningful to your learners?

ANYTHING ELSE?


Many thanks
MANY THANKS words. This gives you a ratio which is used for % accuracy.


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