Biotic factors
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Biotic factors. Biomes Interactions between organisms Productivity In fossil record we recognize: Relationship between organisms Paleoproductivity. Relationship between orgnisms. NEUTRALISM (TOLERANCE) 0/0.

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Biotic factors

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Biotic factors

Biotic factors


Biotic factors

  • Biomes

  • Interactions between organisms

  • Productivity

  • In fossil record we recognize:

  • Relationship between organisms

  • Paleoproductivity


Relationship between orgnisms

Relationship between orgnisms

  • NEUTRALISM (TOLERANCE) 0/0


Biotic factors

  • The most commom type of interspecific interactions.

  • Neither population affects the other.

  • Any interactions that do occur are indirect or incidental.


Interactions between organisms

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • AMENSALISM (ANTISYMBISIS) -/0


Biotic factors

  • One species suffers and the other inetracting species experiences no effect.

  • Wood falling into the sea become floatening log killing large numbers of intertidal organisms (mussles).


Interactions between organisms1

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • PREDATION +/-


Predations

PREDATIONS

  • The best known relationship

  • Organism obtains food at an expense of its prey.

  • Predators tend to be larger than their prey, and consumes mny preys during their lifetimes.

  • Fossil record:


Biotic factors

  • Stomach content (frosen mammoths)

  • Scars on the victim (conical traces of thooths of Mosoosaurs in V shape)


Interactions between organisms2

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • PARASITSM +/-


Biotic factors

  • Echinoidal skelet with 19 rounded scars where foraminifera attached.


Biotic factors

  • From this relationship, one species profits, the another one looses..

  • 2006. a paper on parasits from Dinosurs’ stomch apperd (coprolites from belgium were analysed)


Interactions between organisms3

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • Herbivores

  • Common feature: parasites, predators and herbivores obtain food on an expense of their hosts or preys.

  • Parasites are ususlly smaller than their hosts.

  • Parasites may have many host during their lifetimes.


Interactions between organisms4

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • COMPETITION -/-, +/-


Biotic factors

  • It occurs when organisms in the same community seek for the same resource.

  • This Resource may be prey, water, light, nest-sites…

  • Competition amonghe member of the same species is Intraspecific.

  • Competition among tndividuals of different species is interspecific.


Interactions between organisms outcomes of competition

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS: outcomes of competition

Elimination of one species

Partition in using the resources or different way of using resources


Interactions between organisms5

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • SYMBIOSIS – COMMENSALISM +/0


Biotic factors

  • While one species benefits there are no changes on another one.

  • Example: birds make nests on trees. Do tees feel something?

  • Crinoids and fishes that areimmune from toxic crinoidal bites.


Interactions between organisms6

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • SYMBIOSIS – type MUTUALISMS +/+


Biotic factors

  • Both organisms benefit from this relationship.

  • Population of each species grow, survive and/or reproduce at a higher rate in the presence of the other species.

  • There are Obligate (essential for survival ofboth species) and Facultative (is not enssential fo survival ofeither species) mutualisms!


Interactions between organisms7

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS

  • Other relations


Productivity

Productivity

  • In the nature, one organism depends on another, because one eats another.


Biotic factors

  • … all food, either it is for plants,for animals or for microorganisms conatin Carbon (C). One way to track nutrient cycles in the nature is to follow carbon cycle


Biotic factors

Carbon isotoped

or

You are what you eat


Organic matter productivity

Organic matter: Productivity


Organic matter productivity1

Organic matter: Productivity

  • Ratio 13C/12C in organic matter is used for estimation of theoriginof organic matter and C circulation within food web.


Paleoproductivity

Paleoproductivity

  • Paleoproductivity can be estimated based the amount of fossis.


Paleoproductivity1

Paleoproductivity

Paleoproductivitycan be recognised based on compositon of diatoms assembalge and the amount of biogene opale in sediments.


Biotic factors

  • Recently we use biomarcers to trace ancient life.


Paleoprodukcija

Paleoprodukcija

  • Relation between C isotopes in tests is paleoproductivity indicator. During the high productivity season, the quantity of 13C in benthic foraminiferal tests is reduced by 0.2-0.6 % in relation to C compostion of seabottom


Paleoprodukcija1

Paleoprodukcija

  • Količina organskog ugljika u sedimentu je dobar indikator paleoprodukcije za područja visoke organske produkcije.


Paleoproductivity2

Paleoproductivity

  • Relation of biogene and detrital Ba is good indicator for oligotrophic environments.


Paleoproductivity3

Paleoproductivity

  • In the recent seas, especially in Pacific, there is positiverelation beteen isotope ratio of protactiny and thoryi (231Pa i 230Th) and organivc production.


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