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Biotic factors. Biomes Interactions between organisms Productivity In fossil record we recognize: Relationship between organisms Paleoproductivity. Relationship between orgnisms. NEUTRALISM (TOLERANCE) 0/0.

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Biotic factors

Biotic factors


  • Biomes factors

  • Interactions between organisms

  • Productivity

  • In fossil record we recognize:

  • Relationship between organisms

  • Paleoproductivity


Relationship between orgnisms
Relationship between orgnisms factors

  • NEUTRALISM (TOLERANCE) 0/0



Interactions between organisms
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS factors

  • AMENSALISM (ANTISYMBISIS) -/0



Interactions between organisms1
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS experiences no effect.

  • PREDATION +/-


Predations
PREDATIONS experiences no effect.

  • The best known relationship

  • Organism obtains food at an expense of its prey.

  • Predators tend to be larger than their prey, and consumes mny preys during their lifetimes.

  • Fossil record:



Interactions between organisms2
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS experiences no effect.

  • PARASITSM +/-




Interactions between organisms3
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS looses..

  • Herbivores

  • Common feature: parasites, predators and herbivores obtain food on an expense of their hosts or preys.

  • Parasites are ususlly smaller than their hosts.

  • Parasites may have many host during their lifetimes.


Interactions between organisms4
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS looses..

  • COMPETITION -/-, +/-



Interactions between organisms outcomes of competition
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS: outcomes of competition same resource.

Elimination of one species

Partition in using the resources or different way of using resources


Interactions between organisms5
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS same resource.

  • SYMBIOSIS – COMMENSALISM +/0



Interactions between organisms6
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS one.

  • SYMBIOSIS – type MUTUALISMS +/+


  • Both organisms benefit from this relationship. one.

  • Population of each species grow, survive and/or reproduce at a higher rate in the presence of the other species.

  • There are Obligate (essential for survival ofboth species) and Facultative (is not enssential fo survival ofeither species) mutualisms!


Interactions between organisms7
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS one.

  • Other relations


Productivity
Productivity one.

  • In the nature, one organism depends on another, because one eats another.


  • one. all food, either it is for plants,for animals or for microorganisms conatin Carbon (C). One way to track nutrient cycles in the nature is to follow carbon cycle


Carbon isotoped one.

or

You are what you eat



Organic matter productivity1
Organic matter: Productivity one.

  • Ratio 13C/12C in organic matter is used for estimation of theoriginof organic matter and C circulation within food web.


Paleoproductivity
Paleoproductivity one.

  • Paleoproductivity can be estimated based the amount of fossis.


Paleoproductivity1
Paleoproductivity one.

Paleoproductivitycan be recognised based on compositon of diatoms assembalge and the amount of biogene opale in sediments.



Paleoprodukcija
Paleoprodukcija one.

  • Relation between C isotopes in tests is paleoproductivity indicator. During the high productivity season, the quantity of 13C in benthic foraminiferal tests is reduced by 0.2-0.6 % in relation to C compostion of seabottom


Paleoprodukcija1
Paleoprodukcija one.

  • Količina organskog ugljika u sedimentu je dobar indikator paleoprodukcije za područja visoke organske produkcije.


Paleoproductivity2
Paleoproductivity one.

  • Relation of biogene and detrital Ba is good indicator for oligotrophic environments.


Paleoproductivity3
Paleoproductivity one.

  • In the recent seas, especially in Pacific, there is positiverelation beteen isotope ratio of protactiny and thoryi (231Pa i 230Th) and organivc production.


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