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Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets Overview of Ground & Space Programs Anthony Boccaletti : Obs. Paris-Meudon. Outline. 1. A brief introduction to the high contrast imaging problematic 2. A brief review of projects (talks to follow) 4. « Where » do we need to direct our effort.

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slide1

Direct Imaging of Extrasolar PlanetsOverview of Ground & Space ProgramsAnthony Boccaletti : Obs. Paris-Meudon

outline
Outline

1. A brief introduction to the high contrast imaging problematic

2. A brief review of projects (talks to follow)

4. « Where » do we need to direct our effort

no longer a dream
No longer a dream !

Detection was made possible because :

- small mass ratios (contrast is lower)

- young ages (planet is brighter)

- large physical / angular separations

problematic
Problematic

STOP !!!! … What about diffraction ???

Planets are faint and close ….

109 = 1 milliard

106 = 1 million

Reflected light

Thermal emission

problematic1
Problematic

Stellar images are not point-like …

solutions to reduce diffraction
Solutions to reduce diffraction

We need BIG telescopes …

We need to attenuate the star

Yes but … the Sun is an extended source

Stars are point sources => diffraction is much stronger

We need more performant stellar coronagraphs … to attenuate stars

in theory

Plan A:

si

Plan B:

Plan C:

Plan D:

In Theory …
problematic again
Problematic (again)

Instruments are not perfect …. unfortunately

  • Many defects :
  • - atmospheric turbulence for ground based telescopes
  • static (more or less) optical aberrations
  • variation of transmission
  • alignment
  • chromaticity

=> Limits the performance of coronagraphs

solutions to reject speckles

JPL Testbed

SCC simulation

SDI, Gemini

ADI, Gemini

SD, VLT

Solutions to reject speckles

Wavefront Correction :

at focal plane

- speckles minimization

- Self Coherent Camera

  • Wavefront Calibration :
  • Differential imaging
    • spectral (SDI, SD)
    • angular (ADI)
    • polarimetric (PDI)
planet finders on 8m telescopes 2011
Planet Finders on 8m telescopes (2011)

eXtreme AO + coronagraphy + differential imaging

HiCIAO

European Consoritum, VLT

- Dual band NIR camera (YJHK)

- NIR IFS (YJH)

- Dual Polarisation VIS camera

  • Japan, Subaru
  • Dual band NIR camera
  • Dual polarisation NIR camera
  • HiCIAO + (in dev., 2010)
  • Focal Plane WF
  • coronagraph improvement
  • - NIR IFS
  • US, Gemini South
  • NIR IFS (YJH)
  • Focal Plane

Looking at Giant Planets in :

- young associations of stars (10 Myrs <100pc)

- stars with known planets (RV surveys)

- stars of intermediate age (0.1-1 Gyr)

- very nearby bright stars

james webb space telescope 2014

US instrument

0.6 - 5 m imager

NIRCAM has 5 coronagraphs

Optimized for several filters (F200, F480, …)

Good performance at 4.8m

At 2.2 m mature giants are too faint.

Expected contrast : 105 - 106

- photometry (R=10-20)

l=11.40mm

James Webb Space Telescope (2014)

MIRI

& SPICA

NIRCAM

MIRI

Europe + US consortium

5 - 28 m imager + IFU

MIRI imager has 4 coronagraphs

4QPM in 3 filters (10.6, 11.4, 15.5 m)

=> self luminous mature giants

T > 300-400K (5 - 10AU, 10pc, 5Gyr)

Expected contrast : 104 - 105

- photometry (R=20)

FGS - TFI

CSA responsabilty

1 - 5 m tunable filter

with coronagraphic capabilities

(Spectral Deconvolution)

- spectra (R=100)

extremely large telescopes 2020
Extremely Large Telescopes (2020)

heritage of SPHERE / GPI / HiCIAO

/D = 10mas- Photometry + spectra

heritage of VIZIR & MIRI

/D = 50mas

Photometry + spectra

objectives :

- young giants

- mature giants, spectral characterization

- Super Earth : detection + 1st order charac.

  • objectives :
  • mature giants
  • irradiated planets
future projects in space
Future projects … in space
  • Extend spectroscopic characterization towards ;
  • shorter wavelengths (<1 m)
  • lower masses (Super Earths, Earths)
  • shorter separations (< 1 AU)
  • older objects (1 - 5 Gyr)
  • more distant stars (> 100 pc)
single spacecraft later than 2020
Single spacecraft (later than 2020)
  • Small Telescopes : 1.5 - 2m
  • - optical quality
  • - efficient coronagraph
  • focal plane WFS and correction
  • differential imaging
  • 3 studies in the US :
  • PECO
  • ACCESS => Probe Class (Decadal Survey)
  • EPIC
  • SEE-COAST => CV proposal
  • - spectra : 0.4 - 1.0 m (R>50)
  • - polarimetry : 0.4 - 0.85 m
  • objectives :
  • - explore diversity of planets
  • - mature giants in the visible
  • Super Earths
  • target list : HARPS, ESPRESSO, GAIA, COROT, KEPLER, …
two spacecrafts towards tellurics
Two spacecrafts: towards tellurics

External Occulter

Fresnel imaging lens

Occulter : 50 m

Telescope : 4 m

Separation : 80 000 km

Optimize for Vis. and UV : 0.4 -1.1 m

Chromatic

High throughput

Lens : 3.6 m

Telescope : 68 cm

Separation : 2.5 - 20 km

Optimize for Vis. and UV : 0.1 -1 m

Chromatic

Low throughput

timeline

HST

Vis

JWST

NIR + MIR

old / close EGPs

2014

1995

2000

2007

2011

2017-2020

4m + AO

Silla, CFH

NIR

30 - 40 m + XAO

EPICS / PFI

NIR + MIR

old EGPs / Super Earth

8m + XAO

SPHERE / GPI / HiCIAO

NIR

young / massive / close EGPs

8m + AO

VLT, Keck, Gemini

NIR

Timeline

SPACE

Room for missions !

Vis / MIR

- old EGPs

- Super Earths

- Earths

GROUND

mass vs wavelength coverage
Mass vs. Wavelength coverage

Space telescopes

10 MJ

1 MJ

Space

Interferometry

10 M

Occulters

1 M

a few conclusions
A few conclusions …

high contrast imaging allows to study molecules in the atmosphere of a wide variety of objects

see the talks of this afternoon for details

most instruments focused on EGPs in the NIR & MIR

There is a gap between EGPs and Earth-like planets spectrocopy

What’s next (short timescale) :

- spectroscopy of EGPs in the visible

- Super Earths are numerous

- MIR : space interferometry more promising (see talk this afternoon)

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