Normal ECG
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Normal ECG

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Normal ECG

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1. Normal ECG Normal adult 12-lead ECG The diagnosis of the normal electrocardiogram is made by excluding any recognised abnormality. It's description is therefore quite lengthy. Normal adult 12-lead ECG The diagnosis of the normal electrocardiogram is made by excluding any recognised abnormality. It's description is therefore quite lengthy.

2. A 55 year old man with 4 hours of "crushing" chest pain. Acute inferior myocardial infarction ST elevation in the inferior leads II, III and aVF reciprocal ST depression in the anterior leads Acute inferior myocardial infarction ST elevation in the inferior leads II, III and aVF reciprocal ST depression in the anterior leads

3. A 63 year old woman with 10 hours of chest pain and sweating. Acute anterior myocardial infarction ST elevation in the anterior leads V1 - 6, I and aVL reciprocal ST depression in the inferior leads Acute anterior myocardial infarction ST elevation in the anterior leads V1 - 6, I and aVL reciprocal ST depression in the inferior leads

4. A 60 year old woman with 3 hours of chest pain. Acute posterior myocardial infarction (hyperacute) the mirror image of acute injury in leads V1 - 3 (fully evolved) tall R wave, tall upright T wave in leads V1 -3 usually associated with inferior and/or lateral wall MI Acute posterior myocardial infarction (hyperacute) the mirror image of acute injury in leads V1 - 3 (fully evolved) tall R wave, tall upright T wave in leads V1 -3 usually associated with inferior and/or lateral wall MI

5. A 53 year old man with Ischaemic Heart Disease. Old inferior myocardial infarction a Q wave in lead III wider than 1 mm (1 small square) and a Q wave in lead aVF wider than 0.5 mm and a Q wave of any size in lead II Old inferior myocardial infarction a Q wave in lead III wider than 1 mm (1 small square) and a Q wave in lead aVF wider than 0.5 mm and a Q wave of any size in lead II

6. A 79 year old man with 5 hours of chest pain. Acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block Features suggesting acute MI ST changes in the same direction as the QRS (as shown here) ST elevation more than you'd expect from LBBB alone (e.g. > 5 mm in leads V1 - 3) Q waves in two consecutive lateral leads (indicating anteroseptal MI) ( Acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block Features suggesting acute MI ST changes in the same direction as the QRS (as shown here) ST elevation more than you'd expect from LBBB alone (e.g. > 5 mm in leads V1 - 3) Q waves in two consecutive lateral leads (indicating anteroseptal MI) (

7. An 83 year old man with aortic stenosis. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) There are many different criteria for LVH. Sokolow + Lyon (Am Heart J, 1949;37:161) S V1+ R V5 or V6 > 35 mm Cornell criteria (Circulation, 1987;3: 565-72) SV3 + R avl > 28 mm in men SV3 + R avl > 20 mm in women Framingham criteria (Circulation,1990; 81:815-820) R avl > 11mm, R V4-6 > 25mm S V1-3 > 25 mm, S V1 or V2 + R V5 or V6 > 35 mm, R I + S III > 25 mm Romhilt + Estes (Am Heart J, 1986:75:752-58) Point score system Left atrial abnormality (dilatation or hypertrophy) M shaped P wave in lead II prominent terminal negative component to P wave in lead V1 (shown here) Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) There are many different criteria for LVH. Sokolow + Lyon (Am Heart J, 1949;37:161) S V1+ R V5 or V6 > 35 mm Cornell criteria (Circulation, 1987;3: 565-72) SV3 + R avl > 28 mm in men SV3 + R avl > 20 mm in women Framingham criteria (Circulation,1990; 81:815-820) R avl > 11mm, R V4-6 > 25mm S V1-3 > 25 mm, S V1 or V2 + R V5 or V6 > 35 mm, R I + S III > 25 mm Romhilt + Estes (Am Heart J, 1986:75:752-58) Point score system Left atrial abnormality (dilatation or hypertrophy) M shaped P wave in lead II prominent terminal negative component to P wave in lead V1 (shown here)

8. A 75 year old woman with loud first heart sound and mid-diastolic murmur. Mitral Stenosis There is atrial fibrillation. No P waves are visible. The rhythm is irregularly irregular (random). There is the suggestion of right ventricular hypertrophy. Right axis deviation and deep S waves in the lateral leads. Another important feature of right ventricular hypertrophy not shown here is a dominant R wave in lead V1. The combination of Atrial Fibrillation and Right Axis Deviation on the ECG suggests the possibility of mitral stenosis. Mitral Stenosis There is atrial fibrillation. No P waves are visible. The rhythm is irregularly irregular (random). There is the suggestion of right ventricular hypertrophy. Right axis deviation and deep S waves in the lateral leads. Another important feature of right ventricular hypertrophy not shown here is a dominant R wave in lead V1. The combination of Atrial Fibrillation and Right Axis Deviation on the ECG suggests the possibility of mitral stenosis.

9. A 59 year old woman with chronic bronchitis. Right atrial hypertrophy A P wave in lead II taller then 2.5 mm (2.5 small squares). The P wave is usually pointed. Right atrial hypertrophy A P wave in lead II taller then 2.5 mm (2.5 small squares). The P wave is usually pointed.

10. An 84 year old woman with hypertension There are a number of abnormalities here. left anterior hemiblock QRS axis more left than -30 degrees initial R wave in the inferior leads (II, III and aVF) absence of any other cause of left axis deviation left ventricular hypertrophy In the presence of left anterior hemiblock the diagnostic criteria of LVH are changed. Rosenbaum suggested that an S wave in lead III deeper than 15 mm as predictive of LVH. long PR interval (also called first degree heart block) PR interval longer than 0.2 seconds left atrial hypertrophy M shaped P wave in lead II P wave duration > 0.11 seconds terminal negative component to the P wave in lead V1 There are a number of abnormalities here. left anterior hemiblock QRS axis more left than -30 degrees initial R wave in the inferior leads (II, III and aVF) absence of any other cause of left axis deviation left ventricular hypertrophy In the presence of left anterior hemiblock the diagnostic criteria of LVH are changed. Rosenbaum suggested that an S wave in lead III deeper than 15 mm as predictive of LVH. long PR interval (also called first degree heart block) PR interval longer than 0.2 seconds left atrial hypertrophy M shaped P wave in lead II P wave duration > 0.11 seconds terminal negative component to the P wave in lead V1

11. A 73 year old woman with dizziness. 2 to 1 AV block every other P wave is conducted to the ventricles 2 to 1 AV block starts after the 5th QRS in this 3 channel recording. The first non-conducted P wave is indicated with an arrow. the PR interval of conducted P waves is constant in this lady there is a long PR interval (and left bundle branch block) 2 to 1 AV block cannot be classified into Mobitz type I or II as we do not know if the 2nd P wave would be conducted with the same or longer PR interval. 2 to 1 AV block every other P wave is conducted to the ventricles 2 to 1 AV block starts after the 5th QRS in this 3 channel recording. The first non-conducted P wave is indicated with an arrow. the PR interval of conducted P waves is constant in this lady there is a long PR interval (and left bundle branch block) 2 to 1 AV block cannot be classified into Mobitz type I or II as we do not know if the 2nd P wave would be conducted with the same or longer PR interval.

12. A 70 year old man with exercise intolerance. 2 to 1 AV block every other P wave is conducted to the ventricles 2 to 1 AV block starts after the 5th QRS in this 3 channel recording. The first non-conducted P wave is indicated with an arrow. the PR interval of conducted P waves is constant in this lady there is a long PR interval (and left bundle branch block) 2 to 1 AV block cannot be classified into Mobitz type I or II as we do not know if the 2nd P wave would be conducted with the same or longer PR interval. 2 to 1 AV block every other P wave is conducted to the ventricles 2 to 1 AV block starts after the 5th QRS in this 3 channel recording. The first non-conducted P wave is indicated with an arrow. the PR interval of conducted P waves is constant in this lady there is a long PR interval (and left bundle branch block) 2 to 1 AV block cannot be classified into Mobitz type I or II as we do not know if the 2nd P wave would be conducted with the same or longer PR interval.

13. An 82 year old lady with dizzy spells Atrial fibrillation and complete heart block Fibrillary waves of atrial fibrillation and no P waves. Regular ventricular rhythm The wider the QRS of the ventricular escape rhythm the less reliable the escape mechanism. AF with complete heart block can be easily missed and is an indication for a permanent pacemaker. Atrial fibrillation and complete heart block Fibrillary waves of atrial fibrillation and no P waves. Regular ventricular rhythm The wider the QRS of the ventricular escape rhythm the less reliable the escape mechanism. AF with complete heart block can be easily missed and is an indication for a permanent pacemaker.

14. A 55 year old man with 4 hours of "crushing" chest pain. Right Bundle Branch Block wide QRS, more than 120 ms (3 small squares) secondary R wave in lead V1 other features include slurred S wave in lateral leads and T wave changes in the septal leads See also Left Bundle Branch Block. Acute inferior MI and sinus bradycardia are also present. Right Bundle Branch Block wide QRS, more than 120 ms (3 small squares) secondary R wave in lead V1 other features include slurred S wave in lateral leads and T wave changes in the septal leads See also Left Bundle Branch Block. Acute inferior MI and sinus bradycardia are also present.

15. A 90 year old lady with syncope. 'Trifasicular' block Complete Right Bundle Branch Block Left Anterior Hemiblock Long PR interval The combination of RBBB, LAFB and long PR interval has been called 'trifasicular' block and implies that conduction is delayed in the third fascicle (in this case the left posterior fascicle) and a permanent pacemaker may be needed. However there are other causes of a long PR interval such as delayed conduction in the AV node or atrium so 'trifascicular block' is not a true ECG diagnosis. 'Trifasicular' block Complete Right Bundle Branch Block Left Anterior Hemiblock Long PR interval The combination of RBBB, LAFB and long PR interval has been called 'trifasicular' block and implies that conduction is delayed in the third fascicle (in this case the left posterior fascicle) and a permanent pacemaker may be needed. However there are other causes of a long PR interval such as delayed conduction in the AV node or atrium so 'trifascicular block' is not a true ECG diagnosis.

16. A 34 year old woman with asthma

17. A 60 year old man with HTN

18. A48 year old man with palpitation Atrial Premature Beat (APB) an abnormal P wave (arrowed in figure below) As P waves are small and rather shapeless the difference in an APB is usually subtle. The one shown here is a clear example. occurs earlier than expected followed by a compensatory pause - but not a full compensatory pause (see ventricular premature beat) Atrial Premature Beat (APB) an abnormal P wave (arrowed in figure below) As P waves are small and rather shapeless the difference in an APB is usually subtle. The one shown here is a clear example. occurs earlier than expected followed by a compensatory pause - but not a full compensatory pause (see ventricular premature beat)

19. A 76 year old man with SOB Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response Irregularly irregular ventricular rhythm. Sometimes on first look the rhythm may appear regular but on closer inspection it is clearly irregular. Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response Irregularly irregular ventricular rhythm. Sometimes on first look the rhythm may appear regular but on closer inspection it is clearly irregular.

20. A 60 year old woman with HTN Atrial fibrillation with pre-existing left bundle branch block Sometimes this can be confused with ventricular tachycardia but closer inspection can identify the irregularity. Irregularly irregular rhythm - suggesting AF. Features of typical left bundle branch block wide QRS >120 ms (3 small squares) no secondary R wave in lead V1 no lateral Q waves Atrial fibrillation with pre-existing left bundle branch block Sometimes this can be confused with ventricular tachycardia but closer inspection can identify the irregularity. Irregularly irregular rhythm - suggesting AF. Features of typical left bundle branch block wide QRS >120 ms (3 small squares) no secondary R wave in lead V1 no lateral Q waves

21. A 68 year old women on Digoxin complaining of fatigue Atrial flutter A characteristic 'sawtooth' or 'picket-fence' waveform of an intra-atrial re-entry circuit usually at about 300 bpm. This lady was taking rather too much digoxin and has a very slow ventricular response. Atrial flutter A characteristic 'sawtooth' or 'picket-fence' waveform of an intra-atrial re-entry circuit usually at about 300 bpm. This lady was taking rather too much digoxin and has a very slow ventricular response.

22. A 57 year old woman with palpitations Atrial flutter with 2:1 AV conduction The sawtooth waveform of atrial flutter can usually be seen in the inferior leads II, III and aVF if one looks closely. Sometimes the rapid atrial rate can be seen in V1. Suspect atrial flutter with 2:1 block when you see a rate of about 150 bpm. The atrial rate is shown to be twice the ventricular rate in the figure below. See also atrial flutter with slow ventricular response. Atrial flutter with 2:1 AV conduction The sawtooth waveform of atrial flutter can usually be seen in the inferior leads II, III and aVF if one looks closely. Sometimes the rapid atrial rate can be seen in V1. Suspect atrial flutter with 2:1 block when you see a rate of about 150 bpm. The atrial rate is shown to be twice the ventricular rate in the figure below. See also atrial flutter with slow ventricular response.

23. A woman with Romano-Ward Syndrome Long QT interval The QT interval normally varies with heart rate - becoming shorter at faster rates. It is usually corrected using the cycle length (R-R interval) as shown opposite. normal QTc = 0.42 seconds Romano-Ward syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited form of long QT interval and there is a risk of recurrent ventricular tachycardia, particularly Torsade de Pointes. Ventricular premature beats (VPBs) 2 ventricular premature beats are also shown in this ECG They are broad occur earlier than normal and are followed by a full compensatory pause (the distance between the normal beats before and after the VPB is equal to twice the normal cycle length). Long QT interval The QT interval normally varies with heart rate - becoming shorter at faster rates. It is usually corrected using the cycle length (R-R interval) as shown opposite. normal QTc = 0.42 seconds Romano-Ward syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited form of long QT interval and there is a risk of recurrent ventricular tachycardia, particularly Torsade de Pointes. Ventricular premature beats (VPBs) 2 ventricular premature beats are also shown in this ECG They are broad occur earlier than normal and are followed by a full compensatory pause (the distance between the normal beats before and after the VPB is equal to twice the normal cycle length).

24. QTc Normal QTc Men < 0.43 borderline o.43-0.45 prolonged >0.45 Women < 0.43 borderline o.43-0.47 prolonged >0.47

25. A 50 year old man with chest pain for 2-4 hours Ventricular bigeminy a ventricular premature beat follows each normal beat There are also features of an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Ventricular bigeminy a ventricular premature beat follows each normal beat There are also features of an acute inferior myocardial infarction.

26. A 45 year old women with palpitation and a history of CRF Ventricular tachycardia A wide QRS tachycardia is VT until proven otherwise (1). Features suggesting VT include:- evidence of AV dissociation independent P waves (shown by arrows here) capture or fusion beats beat to beat variability of the QRS morphology very wide complexes (> 140 ms) the same morphology in tachycardia as in ventricular ectopics history of ischaemic heart disease absence of any rS, RS or Rs complexes in the chest leads (2) concordance (chest leads all positive or negative) 1) Griffith MJ, Garrat CJ, Mounsey P, Camm AJ. Ventricular tachycardia as the default diagnosis in broad complex tachycardia. Lancet. 1994;343:386- 2) Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, et al. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83:1649-1659 Ventricular tachycardia A wide QRS tachycardia is VT until proven otherwise (1). Features suggesting VT include:- evidence of AV dissociation independent P waves (shown by arrows here) capture or fusion beats beat to beat variability of the QRS morphology very wide complexes (> 140 ms) the same morphology in tachycardia as in ventricular ectopics history of ischaemic heart disease absence of any rS, RS or Rs complexes in the chest leads (2) concordance (chest leads all positive or negative) 1) Griffith MJ, Garrat CJ, Mounsey P, Camm AJ. Ventricular tachycardia as the default diagnosis in broad complex tachycardia. Lancet. 1994;343:386- 2) Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, et al. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83:1649-1659

27. A 69 year old man 2weeks post IWMI Ventricular tachycardia A wide QRS tachycardia is VT until proven otherwise (1). Features suggesting VT include:- evidence of AV dissociation independent P waves capture or fusion beats beat to beat variability of the QRS morphology (shown here) very wide complexes (> 140 ms) the same morphology in tachycardia as in ventricular ectopics history of ischaemic heart disease absence of any rS, RS or Rs complexes in the chest leads (2) concordance (chest leads all positive or negative) 1) Griffith MJ, Garrat CJ, Mounsey P, Camm AJ. Ventricular tachycardia as the default diagnosis in broad complex tachycardia. Lancet. 1994;343:386- 2) Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, et al. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83:1649-1659 N.B. The computer-aided diagnosis can often be misleading. Ventricular tachycardia A wide QRS tachycardia is VT until proven otherwise (1). Features suggesting VT include:- evidence of AV dissociation independent P waves capture or fusion beats beat to beat variability of the QRS morphology (shown here) very wide complexes (> 140 ms) the same morphology in tachycardia as in ventricular ectopics history of ischaemic heart disease absence of any rS, RS or Rs complexes in the chest leads (2) concordance (chest leads all positive or negative) 1) Griffith MJ, Garrat CJ, Mounsey P, Camm AJ. Ventricular tachycardia as the default diagnosis in broad complex tachycardia. Lancet. 1994;343:386- 2) Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, et al. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83:1649-1659 N.B. The computer-aided diagnosis can often be misleading.

28. A 60 year old man with IHD Polymorphous ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de pointes). This is a form of VT where there is usually no difficulty in recognising its ventricular origin. wide QRS complexes with multiple morphologies changing R - R intervals the axis seems to twist about the isoelectric line it is important to recognise this pattern as there are a number of reversible causes heart block hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia drugs (e.g. tricyclic antidepressant overdose) congenital long QT syndromes other causes of long QT (e.g. IHD) This recording has been kindly donated by Dr G. Butrous of St George's Medical School London who is a cardiologist involved in EUROTOP. Polymorphous ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de pointes). This is a form of VT where there is usually no difficulty in recognising its ventricular origin. wide QRS complexes with multiple morphologies changing R - R intervals the axis seems to twist about the isoelectric line it is important to recognise this pattern as there are a number of reversible causes heart block hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia drugs (e.g. tricyclic antidepressant overdose) congenital long QT syndromes other causes of long QT (e.g. IHD) This recording has been kindly donated by Dr G. Butrous of St George's Medical School London who is a cardiologist involved in EUROTOP.

29. A 36 year old woman with recurrent blackouts Implantable cardioverter defibrillator Most of this 12-lead recording is polymorphic ventricular tachycardia but, in the rhythm strip, the large deflection (arrowed) is the defibrillator discharging. Following the defibrillation a dual chamber pacemaker can be seen. OK so I cheated a little with this one as the odds of catching this on a 12-lead ECG recording are very slim indeed. This is a reconstructed 12-lead recording from an electrophysiology study testing the device after placement. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator Most of this 12-lead recording is polymorphic ventricular tachycardia but, in the rhythm strip, the large deflection (arrowed) is the defibrillator discharging. Following the defibrillation a dual chamber pacemaker can be seen. OK so I cheated a little with this one as the odds of catching this on a 12-lead ECG recording are very slim indeed. This is a reconstructed 12-lead recording from an electrophysiology study testing the device after placement.

30. A 60 year old male with 2 hours of ?crushing? chest pain suddenly collapses Ventricular fibrillation bizarre, irregular, random waveform no clearly identifiable QRS complexes or P waves wandering baseline A 12 lead of Ventricular fibrillation should not usually be taken ... for obvious reasons. Instead of continuing to record the ECG you should check the patient's pulse and reach for the defibrillator! Ventricular fibrillation bizarre, irregular, random waveform no clearly identifiable QRS complexes or P waves wandering baseline A 12 lead of Ventricular fibrillation should not usually be taken ... for obvious reasons. Instead of continuing to record the ECG you should check the patient's pulse and reach for the defibrillator!

31. A 72 year old man with a permanent pacemaker Ventricular pacemaker pacing spikes (best seen here in V4 - V6) will be seen - they may be subtle the paced QRS complexes are abnormally wide In this example the pacemaker starts when there is a long R - R interval following a blocked atrial premature beat (arrowed in figure below). Sinus rhythm takes over again later in the rhythm strip. Ventricular pacemaker pacing spikes (best seen here in V4 - V6) will be seen - they may be subtle the paced QRS complexes are abnormally wide In this example the pacemaker starts when there is a long R - R interval following a blocked atrial premature beat (arrowed in figure below). Sinus rhythm takes over again later in the rhythm strip.

32. What is the rhythm?

33. Dual chamber pacer with an ICD

34. A 25 year old man with bouts of tachycardia Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome short PR interval, less than 3 small squares (120 ms) slurred upstroke to the QRS indicating pre-excitation (delta wave) broad QRS secondary ST and T wave changes Localising the accessory pathway An accessory pathway, bundle of Kent, exists between atria and ventricles and causes early depolarisation of the ventricle. The location of the pathway may be deduced as follows:- LOCATION V1 V2 QRS axis left posteroseptal (type A) +ve +ve left right lateral (type B) -ve -ve left left lateral (type C) +ve +ve inferior (90 degrees) right posteroseptal -ve -ve left anteroseptal -ve -ve normal Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome short PR interval, less than 3 small squares (120 ms) slurred upstroke to the QRS indicating pre-excitation (delta wave) broad QRS secondary ST and T wave changes Localising the accessory pathway An accessory pathway, bundle of Kent, exists between atria and ventricles and causes early depolarisation of the ventricle. The location of the pathway may be deduced as follows:- LOCATION V1 V2 QRS axis left posteroseptal (type A) +ve +ve left right lateral (type B) -ve -ve left left lateral (type C) +ve +ve inferior (90 degrees) right posteroseptal -ve -ve left anteroseptal -ve -ve normal

35. short PR interval, less than 3 small squares (120 ms) slurred upstroke to the QRS indicating pre-excitation (delta wave) broad QRS secondary ST and T wave changes Localising the accessory pathway An accessory pathway, bundle of Kent, exists between atria and ventricles and causes early depolarisation of the ventricle. The location of the pathway may be deduced as follows:- LOCATION V1 V2 QRS axis left posteroseptal (type A) +ve +ve left right lateral (type B) -ve -ve left left lateral (type C) +ve +ve inferior (90 degrees) right posteroseptal -ve -ve left anteroseptal -ve -ve normal Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome

36. A 47 year old man with a long history of palpitations and blackouts. Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation irregularly irregular, wide complex tachycardia impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles via either both the AV node and accessory pathway producing a broad fusion complex or just the AV node producing a narrow complex (without a delta wave) or just the accessory pathway producing a very broad 'pure' delta wave people who develop this rhythm and have very short R - R intervals are at higher risk of VF Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation irregularly irregular, wide complex tachycardia impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles via either both the AV node and accessory pathway producing a broad fusion complex or just the AV node producing a narrow complex (without a delta wave) or just the accessory pathway producing a very broad 'pure' delta wave people who develop this rhythm and have very short R - R intervals are at higher risk of VF

37. A 23 year old male with palpitations Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation irregularly irregular, wide complex tachycardia impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles via either both the AV node and accessory pathway producing a broad fusion complex or just the AV node producing a narrow complex (without a delta wave) or just the accessory pathway producing a very broad 'pure' delta wave people who develop this rhythm and have very short R - R intervals are at higher risk of VF Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation irregularly irregular, wide complex tachycardia impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles via either both the AV node and accessory pathway producing a broad fusion complex or just the AV node producing a narrow complex (without a delta wave) or just the accessory pathway producing a very broad 'pure' delta wave people who develop this rhythm and have very short R - R intervals are at higher risk of VF

38. A 56 year old man with SOB and raises JVP Pericardial effusion with electrical alternans The QRS axis alternates between beats. In this example it is best seen in the chest leads where the QRS points in different directions! This is rarely seen and is due to the heart moving in the effusion. Pericardial effusion with electrical alternans The QRS axis alternates between beats. In this example it is best seen in the chest leads where the QRS points in different directions! This is rarely seen and is due to the heart moving in the effusion.

39. A 50 year old man with palpitations Lown Ganong Levine Syndrome short PR interval, less than 3 small squares (120 ms) no delta wave In this ECG there is also non-specific inferolateral ST-T changes and voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy. Lown Ganong Levine Syndrome short PR interval, less than 3 small squares (120 ms) no delta wave In this ECG there is also non-specific inferolateral ST-T changes and voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy.

40. A 49 year old woman with pleuritic chest pain and SOB Acute pulmonary embolus The following, often transient, changes may be seen in a large pulmonary embolus. an S1Q3T3 pattern a prominent S wave in lead I a Q wave and inverted T wave in lead III sinus tachycardia T wave inversion in leads V1 - V3 Right Bundle Branch Block low amplitude deflections Acute pulmonary embolus The following, often transient, changes may be seen in a large pulmonary embolus. an S1Q3T3 pattern a prominent S wave in lead I a Q wave and inverted T wave in lead III sinus tachycardia T wave inversion in leads V1 - V3 Right Bundle Branch Block low amplitude deflections

41. A 58 year old man on hemodialysis presents with weakness This man's serum potassium was 9.6 mmol/L. Hyperkalaemia The following changes may be seen in hyperkalaemia small or absent P waves atrial fibrillation wide QRS shortened or absent ST segment wide, tall and tented T waves ventricular fibrillation This man's serum potassium was 9.6 mmol/L. Hyperkalaemia The following changes may be seen in hyperkalaemia small or absent P waves atrial fibrillation wide QRS shortened or absent ST segment wide, tall and tented T waves ventricular fibrillation

42. A 28 year old woman with prolonged vomiting This lady's serum potassium was 1.8 mmol/L. Hypokalaemia The following changes may be seen in hypokalaemia. small or absent T waves prominent U waves (see diagram) first or second degree AV block slight depression of the ST segment This lady's serum potassium was 1.8 mmol/L. Hypokalaemia The following changes may be seen in hypokalaemia. small or absent T waves prominent U waves (see diagram) first or second degree AV block slight depression of the ST segment

43. A 64 year old woman on digoxin Digitalis effect shortened QT interval characteristic down-sloping ST depression, reverse tick appearence, (shown here in leads V5 and V6) dysrhythmias ventricular / atrial premature beats paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with variable AV block ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation many others Digitalis effect shortened QT interval characteristic down-sloping ST depression, reverse tick appearence, (shown here in leads V5 and V6) dysrhythmias ventricular / atrial premature beats paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with variable AV block ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation many others


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