Anatomical opposites
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Anatomical Opposites. anterior vs. posterior superior vs. inferior medial vs. lateral proximal vs. distal palmar vs. plantar abduction vs. adduction eversion vs. inversion. internal rotation vs. external rotation flexion vs. extension plantar flexion vs. dorsiflexion

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Anatomical Opposites

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Anatomical Opposites

anterior vs. posterior

superior vs. inferior

medial vs. lateral

proximal vs. distal

palmar vs. plantar

abduction vs. adduction

eversion vs. inversion

internal rotation vs. external rotation

flexion vs. extension

plantar flexion vs. dorsiflexion

pronation vs. supination

radial deviation vs. ulnar deviation

protraction vs. retraction


Anatomical Position

Stand straight up with palms forward


Anterioror front

- EX. Knees are located on the anterior surface of the body

Posterioror back

- EX. Scapula is located on the posterior surface of the body


Superior – upper or above another.

- EX: The head is superior to the feet

Inferior – lower or below another.

- EX: The feet are inferior to the head.


  • Medial – toward the mid-line of the body

  • Lateral – away from the mid-line of the body


  • Proximal – toward the point of attachment to the body

  • Distal – Away from the point of attachment to the body


Palmar – palm of hand

Plantar – bottom of foot


Abduction – To move away or deviate from the midline of the body

Adduction – deviate toward or draw toward the midline of the body


Eversion –

turning outward

Inversion –

turning inward


External rotation – rotary motion in the transverse plane away from the midline

Internal Rotation – rotary motion in the transverse plane toward the midline

internal rotationexternal rotation


Flexion – to bend; when a joint is flexed, the part distal to the joint bends

Extension – To straighten; when the part distal to a joint extends and decreases joint angle


Lateral bending – movement from the midline in the frontal plane, occurs in the neck and back


Plantar flexion – movement of ankle downward

Dorsiflexion – movement of ankle upward


Pronation–the palm is turned downward; laying on your stomach

supination

Supination – the palm is turned upward; laying on your back

pronation


Radial Deviation – Wrist abduction

Ulnar Deviation – Wrist adduction


Retraction – to pull in a backward motion

Protraction – to elevate and push towards the frontal plane

protractionretraction


Rotation – movement around an axis


  • It is possible to combine motions to describe a movement.

    - Ex. Abduction external rotation of the shoulder complex


Body Planes and Sections

  • Sagittal Plane – lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left halves.

  • Movements:

    - Flexion/Extension

    - Hyperextension

    -Plantar/Dorsiflexion


  • Transverse Plane – horizontal cut that divides the body into upper and lower parts

  • Movements:

    - int/ex rotation

    - supination/pronation

    - right/left rotation

    - horizontal ab/adduction


  • Frontal Plane – divides body into anterior and posterior portions

  • Movements:

    -abduction/adduction

    - radial/ulnar deviation

    - inversion/eversion

    - lateral flexion


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