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Chapter 15. Biochemistry. Energy of Life. Sun energy is converted to chemical energy by plants 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Building energy molecules = anabolism Breaking down molecules for energy = catabolism. Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates. Formed from C, H, and O

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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

Biochemistry


Energy of life
Energy of Life

  • Sun energy is converted to chemical energy by plants

    6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Building energy molecules = anabolism

  • Breaking down molecules for energy = catabolism


Molecules of life carbohydrates
Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates

  • Formed from C, H, and O

  • Types:

    • Sugars = monosaccharides

      • Names end in –ose

    • Starches = polysaccharide

      • Plant starch = amylose, large granules

      • Animal starch = glycogen, small granules

    • Cellulose = polysaccharide

      • Different linkages than starches


Molecules of life fats
Molecules of Life: Fats

  • Called lipids

  • Types:

    • Fatty acids (triglycerides)

    • Steroids: cholesterol, sex hormones

    • Fat-soluble vitamins

    • Waxes

  • Classified by degree of saturation

  • Insoluble in water

  • Usually less dense than water


Molecules of life proteins
Molecules of life: Proteins

  • Vital: present in all body tissues

  • Combinations of amino acids

    • 9 are essential amino acids

    • All have 3-letter abbreviations

  • How many combinations can you make from threonine (Thr), proline (Pro), cysteine (Cys), and leucine (Leu)?


Molecules of life protein structure
Molecules of life: Protein Structure

  • Primary

    • Amino acid sequence: long chain

  • Secondary

    • Pleated sheet

    • α- helix

  • Tertiary

    • 3-dimensional folding of chain

  • Quaternary

    • Multiple separate tertiary structures bonded together



Molecules of life protein structure2
Molecules of life: Protein Structure

α-helix

Pleated sheet

Both due to hydrogen bonding!


Molecules of life protein structure3
Molecules of life: Protein Structure

  • Linking proteins together

    • Primary = peptide bonds (amide linkage)

    • Secondary

      • Hydrogen bonds

    • Tertiary, Quaternary

      • Ionic bonds (“salt bridge”)

      • Disulfide bond (covalent)

      • Dispersion forces

        • Most important for non-polar side-chains



Molecules of life special proteins
Molecules of Life: Special Proteins

  • Enzymes

    • Catalyze reactions

    • Lower activation energy: bring reactants into precise proximity

    • Increase reaction rate

    • Lower necessary temperature

    • Not used up in reaction!

    • Some for catabolism, some for anabolism


Molecules of life nucleic acids
Molecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleotides:

    • Sugar

      • Ribose (in RNA)

      • Deoxyribose (in DNA)

    • Phosphate

      • PO43- polyatomic ion bonded to sugar

      • Backbone of the DNA

    • Amine base

      • Purines: adenine (A), guanine (G)

      • Pyrimidines: cytosine (C), thymine (G), uracil (U) in RNA

      • Purines bond with pyrimidines

      • Linked by hydrogen bonding




Molecules of life nucleic acids3
Molecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

  • Double helical structure

  • DNA synthesis

    • Unzipped by enzymes for replication

    • “Semi-conservative replication”

    • Sets of nucleotides copied into new strand


Molecules of life nucleic acids4
Molecules of Life: Nucleic Acids

  • Protein Synthesis

    • Transcription

      • mRNA: “negative” copy of DNA in nucleus

    • Translation

      • tRNA: amino acids make protein structure



Dna analysis
DNA Analysis

Crime Scene

Suspect 1

Suspect 2

Suspect 3

Suspect 4

  • Paternity Testing

    • 50% of DNA from each parent

  • DNA fingerprinting

    • Compare evidence to known samples

Source: http://www.copernico.bo.it/subwww/webnewbio/webbiotec/html/K5_DNA%20Fingerprinting.html


Dna manipulation
DNA Manipulation

Recombinant Genetics


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