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Chapter 15. Biochemistry. Energy of Life. Sun energy is converted to chemical energy by plants 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Building energy molecules = anabolism Breaking down molecules for energy = catabolism. Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates. Formed from C, H, and O

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chapter 15

Chapter 15

Biochemistry

energy of life
Energy of Life
  • Sun energy is converted to chemical energy by plants

6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Building energy molecules = anabolism
  • Breaking down molecules for energy = catabolism
molecules of life carbohydrates
Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates
  • Formed from C, H, and O
  • Types:
    • Sugars = monosaccharides
      • Names end in –ose
    • Starches = polysaccharide
      • Plant starch = amylose, large granules
      • Animal starch = glycogen, small granules
    • Cellulose = polysaccharide
      • Different linkages than starches
molecules of life fats
Molecules of Life: Fats
  • Called lipids
  • Types:
    • Fatty acids (triglycerides)
    • Steroids: cholesterol, sex hormones
    • Fat-soluble vitamins
    • Waxes
  • Classified by degree of saturation
  • Insoluble in water
  • Usually less dense than water
molecules of life proteins
Molecules of life: Proteins
  • Vital: present in all body tissues
  • Combinations of amino acids
    • 9 are essential amino acids
    • All have 3-letter abbreviations
  • How many combinations can you make from threonine (Thr), proline (Pro), cysteine (Cys), and leucine (Leu)?
molecules of life protein structure
Molecules of life: Protein Structure
  • Primary
    • Amino acid sequence: long chain
  • Secondary
    • Pleated sheet
    • α- helix
  • Tertiary
    • 3-dimensional folding of chain
  • Quaternary
    • Multiple separate tertiary structures bonded together
molecules of life protein structure2
Molecules of life: Protein Structure

α-helix

Pleated sheet

Both due to hydrogen bonding!

molecules of life protein structure3
Molecules of life: Protein Structure
  • Linking proteins together
    • Primary = peptide bonds (amide linkage)
    • Secondary
      • Hydrogen bonds
    • Tertiary, Quaternary
      • Ionic bonds (“salt bridge”)
      • Disulfide bond (covalent)
      • Dispersion forces
        • Most important for non-polar side-chains
molecules of life special proteins
Molecules of Life: Special Proteins
  • Enzymes
    • Catalyze reactions
    • Lower activation energy: bring reactants into precise proximity
    • Increase reaction rate
    • Lower necessary temperature
    • Not used up in reaction!
    • Some for catabolism, some for anabolism
molecules of life nucleic acids
Molecules of Life: Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleotides:
    • Sugar
      • Ribose (in RNA)
      • Deoxyribose (in DNA)
    • Phosphate
      • PO43- polyatomic ion bonded to sugar
      • Backbone of the DNA
    • Amine base
      • Purines: adenine (A), guanine (G)
      • Pyrimidines: cytosine (C), thymine (G), uracil (U) in RNA
      • Purines bond with pyrimidines
      • Linked by hydrogen bonding
molecules of life nucleic acids3
Molecules of Life: Nucleic Acids
  • Double helical structure
  • DNA synthesis
    • Unzipped by enzymes for replication
    • “Semi-conservative replication”
    • Sets of nucleotides copied into new strand
molecules of life nucleic acids4
Molecules of Life: Nucleic Acids
  • Protein Synthesis
    • Transcription
      • mRNA: “negative” copy of DNA in nucleus
    • Translation
      • tRNA: amino acids make protein structure
dna analysis
DNA Analysis

Crime Scene

Suspect 1

Suspect 2

Suspect 3

Suspect 4

  • Paternity Testing
    • 50% of DNA from each parent
  • DNA fingerprinting
    • Compare evidence to known samples

Source: http://www.copernico.bo.it/subwww/webnewbio/webbiotec/html/K5_DNA%20Fingerprinting.html

dna manipulation
DNA Manipulation

Recombinant Genetics

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