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Natural Resources. Strategies and its Implication. Reference. Working papers of IRMA – 152- Managing India’s water resources, some issues and options by Dr Katar Singh Year-January 2001

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Natural resources

Natural Resources

Strategies and its Implication



  • Working papers of IRMA –

  • 152- Managing India’s water resources, some issues and options by Dr Katar Singh Year-January 2001

  • 148- Irrigation with a manual pump, impact on farming enterprise and food security in coastal Orissa by M. Dinesh Kumar Year- August 2000

  • 130- Forest degradation and changing livelihood among the Juang and the Saora tribal communities of Orissa by Smita Mishra Panda Year- June 1999

Some options

Some Options

  • Property Rights in water

  • Legal and Institutional Framework

  • Pricing of Water and Removal of Imperfections in water Markets

  • Using New Technologies

Property rights in water

Property Rights in water

  • The author suggests that a National Water Development and Management Board should be created by the act of parliament.

  • Ownership rights should be necessarily vested in the Panchayati Raj Institutions.

  • The water users should be organized in the form of cooperatives or a company at the level of village or town.

  • Every water user will buy share of the company have jurisdiction over the village or town of residence of the user.

  • Theses shares should be transferable and saleable.

Legal and institutional framework

Legal and Institutional Framework

  • NABARD issues restrictions are in the form of minimum spacing requirements between tube-wells financed by banks.

  • This has drawbacks because the rich farmers resort to borrowing from non-institutional sources and thereby bypass these restrictions.

Pricing of water and removal of imperfections in water markets

Pricing of Water and Removal of Imperfections in water Markets

  • In India, water market exists in many agricultural advance areas such as Punjab, Haryana and many parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

  • These are informal, unregulated and have several imperfections. It is quite possible that the market price do not reflect the real resource cost of water and its real demand.

  • Besides lots of government interventions in the form of subsidies, quotas etc. that limits the scope of the interpretation of the real use value of water.

  • A survey of 100 farmers conducted in two purposively selected villages in the Kheda district of Gujarat, it was found that the sample farmers were willing to pay 150 to 300 percent of the prevailing tariff or timely and adequate supply of irrigation water.

Using new technologies

Using New Technologies

  • chemical fertilizers and pesticides later proved to be harmful. There is also a need of public investment in developing water saving and water treatment technologies.

  • To ensure safe and healthy lifestyle new technologies must be carefully evaluated before they are recommended for wider use

Treadle pump

Treadle Pump

  • It is a foot-operated water lifting device.

  • Originally developed in Bangladesh in the early 1980’s.

  • Popularly known as Krishi Bandhu Pump.

  • This modern exploration techniques brought to light the ground water potential in many places in Orissa.

Reasons for it s use in orissa

Reasons for it’s use in Orissa

  • 55% of people live below the poverty line.

  • Need to increase agricultural production.

  • IDE( International Development Enterprise) works to improve the condition of poor by mass marketing low-cost technologies.

  • Started its operation in India with the promotion of Treadle Pump in 1994.

Socio economic dynamics in 2 villages salajanga and sunugoradi

Socio-economic dynamics in 2 villages- Salajanga and Sunugoradi

  • Village economy depended on rain-fed agriculture earlier.

  • Treadle pump owing farmer can grow a variety of vegetable crops in two seasons.

  • In past one year ,18.19 acre of land has been irrigated using Treadle Pump



  • Operated by standing on two bamboo levers.

  • Uses a bamboo or a flexible pipe or a suction tube well to pump water from a depth of 5.45 to 5.75 m.

  • It is a low speed ,fast-operating reciprocating pump.

  • Produce a discharge of 1-2 litres of water per second.



  • Affordable

  • Easy available

  • Economically –viable

  • Easiness in operation

  • Reliable

  • Now require inputs in the form of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides.



  • No need to migrate to cities for low paid jobs during off-season.

  • Anyone can operate from children to grandmother.

  • Till date , 51000 pumps have been installed( helps in significant reduction in Carbon emission).

  • Increased output from agricultural productions.

  • Better access to food supplies

Forest its degradation and its impact on tribal women


  • Forest-another indispensable natural resource, is a complex ecosystem consisting mainly of trees that buffer the earth and support a myriad of life forms.

  • Forest Degradation- generally do not mean decrease in woody vegetation but as a gradual reduction in biomass, changes in species composition and soil degradation. It does not involve reduction of the forest area but quality decrease in its condition.

Natural resources

Differential impact of forest degradation on women and men can be judged through six critical aspects-

  • time

  • Income

  • nutrition

  • health

  • socio-cultural survival networks

  • knowledge systems that are linked with the increasing drudgery of women

Juang saora tribe of orrisa


Forest Degradation in the two tribal areas has leaded to:-

  • Fewer large trees in the forest area

  • Reduction in large trees led to declination of shrubs and smaller plants and thereby loss of biodiversity

  • Decline in number of animals

  • Shortening of the swidden fallow period to three years

  • Decline in the swidden yields

  • Hardening of the swidden soils, made digging a cumbersome task

  • Flooding of the foothill lands during the monsoon season due to soil erosion, and

  • Reduction of regenerative capacity of the swidden lands.

Factors affecting gender relations


  • Introduction of Plough Cultivation

  • Privatization and Commoditisation of Swidden Lands

  • Influence of the Monetized Economy

  • Male Migration among the Saora










  • Water resources and sustainable development- Kamta Prasad

    Name of Publisher- Shipra Publication, Delhi


    Reference Code- 33.91 PRA

  • Tribal women and forest economy- Walter Fernandes and Geeta Menon

    Name of Publisher- Indian Social Institute

    Year- 1987

    Reference Code- 307.7 FER

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  • THANKS!!!!!

Garima Suman(15)

Megha Sinha(25)

Rashmi Rekha(38)

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