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The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal. Relief, Recovery and Reform. Election Of 1932. FDR (D) vs. Hoover (R). Essential Questions:. What did FDR mean when he offered a “New Deal’? Why was the election of 1932 a turning point in American politics?. FDR Facts. Born in 1882

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The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal

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The election of 32 fdr and the 1st new deal

The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal

Relief, Recovery and Reform


Election of 1932

Election Of 1932

  • FDR (D) vs. Hoover (R)


Essential questions

Essential Questions:

  • What did FDR mean when he offered a “New Deal’?

  • Why was the election of 1932 a turning point in American politics?


Fdr facts

FDR Facts

  • Born in 1882

  • Went to Harvard

  • Lawyer

  • NY State Senate

  • Assistant Sec. of the Navy during WWI


Fdr facts ii

FDR Facts II

  • Married Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Ran for VP in 1920

  • Contracted polio in 1921

  • Governor of NY 1929-1932

  • Willing to experiment with government roles


Eleanor roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Niece of TR

  • Married FDR in 1905, 6 children

  • Social Worker

  • Fought for public housing, gov. reform, birth control, and better conditions for women


Election of 19321

Election of 1932

*Hoover

-Minimal Gov. Action

-Strict view of Gov.

-Less Gov. the better


Election of 19322

Election of 1932

  • FDR

    -Willing to experiment with the role of Gov.

    -Supported broadening the role of Gov.


The election of 32 fdr and the 1st new deal

FDR

  • “Can do” attitude

  • Confident and Friendly

  • Compassionate

  • Inaugural Address 1933

  • “ …the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”


Advisors to fdr

Advisors to FDR

  • “The Brain Trust”

    • Raymond Moley (Columbia)

    • Rexford Tugwell (Columbia)

    • Felix Frankfurter (Harvard)


Fdr s cabinet

FDR’s Cabinet

  • Sec. of the Interior – Harold L. Ickes

  • Sec. of Agriculture – Henry A. Wallace

  • Sec. of the Treasury – Henry Morgenthau

  • Sec. of Labor- F. Perkins


Essential questions1

Essential Questions:

  • What initial steps did FDR take to reform banking and finance?

  • What were some New Deal Programs?

  • Who were the critics of FDR’s New Deal?


The hundred days

The Hundred Days

  • 3/9/33 to 6/16/33

  • Congress passed more than 15 pieces of legislation

  • Significantly expanded the role of the Federal Gov. in the economy.


Banking reform

Banking Reform

  • March 5th all banks closed by FDR

  • Emergency Banking Act – Healthy banks to reopen, management of failed banks.

  • Increased Gov. regulatory power over money and banking


Banking reform part ii

Banking Reform Part II

  • First “Fireside Chat” March 1933

  • Glass-Steagall Act 1933- Established the FDIC

  • Federal Securities Act 1933-

    Established the SEC to regulate the stock market


Prohibition repealed

Prohibition Repealed

  • FDR pushed Congress to allow the sale and manufacture of beer and wine.

  • Effort to raise gov. revenues through taxes

  • 21st Amend. (End of 1933)


Rural assistance

Rural Assistance

  • The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- Gov. paid farmers to limit production.

  • $200 million to plow under 10 million acres.

  • 6 million pigs slaughtered.

  • $ for farmers and prices raised farm prices


Work projects

Work Projects

CCC – Civilian Conservation Corp – “Tree Army”

Employed 3 million men

Paid $25 - $30 a month

Men lived in work camps

Planted 200 million trees, 800 state parks, and 46,000 bridges


More work projects

More Work Projects

* Provided money to states to create jobs in construction of schools and community buildings.

Created the (PWA)

Part of (FERA)


Work projects iii

Work Projects III

  • Civilian Works Administration (CWA) established in Nov. 1933

  • 4 million jobs

  • Built 40,000 schools

  • 500,000 miles of road


The election of 32 fdr and the 1st new deal

  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

  • 1933 – Federal Agency to construct dams and power plants along the TN river.

    *Electricity, Flood Control, Recreation


Recovery in business

Recovery in Business

  • NIRA wanted to promote industrial growth

  • NIRA established codes of fair practice for employers, employees, and consumers.

  • Nat. Recovery Adm. (NRA)


National recovery administration nira

National Recovery Administration (NIRA)

  • Set Prices and established standards

  • Codes limited production

  • Workers could unionize and bargain collectively


Nira nra unconstitutional

NIRA/NRA Unconstitutional!!

  • In 1935 the Supreme Court ruled the NIRA Unconstitutional

  • They claimed it gave the Pres. too much power

  • Fed. Gov. was involved in state commerce


Recovery in housing

Recovery In Housing

  • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)- Provided gov. loans to those facing forclosure.

  • National Housing Act 1934 – created the Federal Housing Administration to give loans for mortgages and repairs.


Providing relief

Providing Relief

  • Federal Emergency Relief Adm. (FERA) was funded with $500 million for direct relief.

  • Half given to the states for food and clothing


Providing relief ii fera

Providing Relief II- FERA

  • Helped unemployed, aging, and the ill.

  • $ was given to states to support work relief programs. (CWA/PWA)


Left turn and the second new deal fdr s critics

Left Turn and the Second New Deal-FDR’s Critics


Deficit spending

Deficit Spending

  • More $ was spent on the New Deal than the gov. received in revenue

  • National Debt increased, no balanced budgets

  • FDR – “necessary evil” during crisis


John maynard keynes

John Maynard Keynes

  • British economist

  • Gov. should spend to provide $ for consumers

  • Deficit Spending is necessary to stimulate the economy.

  • “Priming the Pump”


Liberal critics

Liberal Critics

  • Criticism of The New Deal from the political left

  • Socialist and Communist

  • The New Deal did not go far enough to help the poor and reform the econ. system


Conservative critics

Conservative Critics

  • Too much time on direct relief

  • FDR socialized the economy…big gov.

  • AAA + NIRA gave gov. too much control

  • interfered with free-market


Supreme court reacts

Supreme Court Reacts


Unconstitutional

Unconstitutional!!

  • 1935 NIRA Unconstitutional!!!

  • Gave FDR lawmaking power

  • 1936 AAA Unconstitutional

  • Agriculture is a local matter to be regulated by the states


Three critics

Three Critics

  • Father Charles Coughlin

  • Dr. Francis Townsend

  • Huey Long


Two demagogues

Two Demagogues

  • Demagogues - Leaders who manipulate people with half- truths, deceptive promises, and scare tactics.


Father charles coughlin

Father Charles Coughlin

  • Roman Catholic Priest

  • Radio Show that combined political, economic, and religious ideas

  • Audience 40-45 million

  • Initial Supporter of FDR


Father charles coughlin ii

Father Charles Coughlin II

  • Wanted a guaranteed annual income and nationalization of banks

  • Anti- Semitic


Dr francis townsend

Dr. Francis Townsend

  • Physician and Health Officer,Long Beach. CA

  • FDR did not help the poor and elderly

  • Monthly pension benefits to the aged - $200 over 60


Huey long king fish

Huey Long “King Fish”

  • Senator from Louisiana

  • Early supporter of the New Deal

  • Presidential Ambitions

  • “Every Man a King!”

  • Share our Wealth Plan - SOW 27,000 clubs, 7.5 million

  • Assassinated in 1935


Fdr looks ahead

FDR Looks Ahead

  • He realized more needed to be done to help the people and solve the economic problems

  • The Second New Deal or Second Hundred Days


The second new deal

The Second New Deal

  • What was the purpose of the Second New Deal?

  • What were the New Deal programs for farmers?

  • What Second New Deal Programs helped young people and artistic professionals?

  • What economic and labor reforms that were carried out under the Second New Deal?


Second new deal

Second New Deal

  • More Help for Farmers

  • First AAA was ruled Unconstitutional due to a processing tax

  • Second AAA again paid farmers subsidies not to grow surplus crops


Farm security admin

Farm Security Admin.

  • FSA loaned more than $1 billion to small farmers to purchase land.

  • Camps for migrant farmers

  • Help for share-croppers

  • Hired Photographers to capture rural life

  • Ex. Dorothea Lange


Fdr extends relief

FDR extends Relief

  • Works Progress Adm. (WPA) 1935-1943

  • Spend $11 billion to give jobs to 8 million workers.

  • Constructed 651,000 miles of streets

  • Constructed more than 125,000 public buildings

  • Women 300 mil garments


Wpa activities

WPA Activities

  • Wrote Guides to cities

  • Collected Historical Slave Narratives

  • Painted Murals on Walls

  • Federal Theater Project FTP

  • National Youth Administration ( NYA)16-25

  • Education, Jobs, & Advice


Improving labor

Improving Labor

  • 1935 Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional

  • Workers had been granted the right to organize in unions and bargain collectively

  • Workers wanted new laws


The wagner act

The Wagner Act

  • Legalized collective bargaining and closed shops

  • No threats, blacklisting, or spying on unions

    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

  • NLRB – Enforces provisions


Fair labor standards act

Fair Labor Standards Act

  • Max. Hrs. per week 44

  • Min. wage at $.25 per hour

  • Set rules for workers under 16

  • Banned hazardous work for those under 18.


Social security act of 1935

Social Security Act of 1935

  • Old Age pensions and survivors benefits 65 and older.

  • Unemployment Insurance – Tax on employers paid $15-$18 per week

  • Aid for dependent children who were disabled


Unions triumph

Unions Triumph

  • Membership rose from 3 mil in 1933 to 10.5 million by 1941

  • By 1945, 36% of workers were Unionized.

  • John L. Lewis the United Mine Workers Pres. Joined with other Union Rep of the AFL to create the Committee of Industrial Org. (CIO)


Unions triumph ii

Unions Triumph II

  • The CIO sent reps into steel mills, coal mines, auto plants, and southern mills to recruit workers

  • (The AFL suspended the CIO)

  • Nov. 1938 both formed a coalition and became the Congress of Industrial Org. (CIO) with Lewis as Pres.


Era of strikes

Era of Strikes

  • Companies didn’t accept Union’s demands

  • Workers used Sit-down Strikes

  • Workers refused to leave the building

  • 1936 Rubber Plant in Akron

  • 1936 General Motors Flint, Mich. (UAW) 2 mo. GM gave in


Unsuccessful strikes

Unsuccessful Strikes

  • 1937 Ford Motor Co. , Detroit

  • UAW officials beaten by Henry’s Ford’s men while trying to recruit by passing out pamphlets

  • Other strikes became violent

  • 1939 the Supreme Court outlawed sit-down strikes. (too potent and obstructed negotiation)


New deal coalition

New Deal Coalition

  • FDR vs. Alfred Landon (R) Election of ‘36

  • FDR won in a landslide

  • Unions

  • Industrial Workers Skilled/Unskilled

  • Recent Immigrants

  • Roman Catholics

  • Jews

  • Northern African- Americans

  • Farmers


The new deal and the west

The New Deal and the West


Regulating utilities

Regulating Utilities

  • Rural Electrification Adm. (REA)

  • Offered loans to Cooperatives and Farms to build plants and power lines to rural areas

  • Public Utility Holding Act -No Holding Co. Ownership of utilities


Depression in rural areas

Depression in Rural Areas

  • Falling Crop prices

  • Rising debt

  • 400,000 farm foreclosures

  • Had to tenant farm


The dust bowl

The Dust Bowl

  • Overproduction of land

  • Unsuitable for farming

  • Droughts

  • Windstorms

  • KS,CO,TX,NM,OK


Farmer exodus

Farmer Exodus

  • Farmers and Families pack –up

  • Head West on Route 66

  • California

  • “Okies”

  • The Grapes of Wrath


Mexican americans and the new deal

Mexican- Americans and the New Deal

  • Worked in the Southwest as farm workers since the 1920s’

  • Discriminated against by the CCC and WPA because they had no permanent address

  • Farm workers tried to unionize


Boulder dam project i

BoulderDam Project I

  • Approved in 1928

  • Construction began in 1930 and ended in 1936.

  • Boulder City , NV Housed the workers.

  • Hoover financed the construction by using future profits of electricity


Boulder dam project

Boulder Dam Project

  • $700 million dollar public works project

  • 726ft. High and 1,244 ft. long

  • Provided electricity and flood control. (CO river basin)

  • Provided thousands of jobs

  • Water source for LA and LV


Native americans in the 1930 s

Native- Americans in the 1930’s

  • In 1933, FDR appointed John Collier as commissioner of Indian affairs

  • Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

    • Economic- Native American land was held by the entire tribe

    • Cultural- Boarding school were reduced and children could attend school on the reservation

    • Political- Tribes could elect tribal councils to govern the reservations


John collier

John Collier


Culture in the 1930 s

Culture in the 1930’s


Depression era culture essential questions

Depression Era Culture Essential Questions:

  • 1.) What entertainment did radio and movies provide?

  • 2.) Who were some writers and artists of the New Deal era?


Golden age of movies and radio

Golden Age of Movies and Radio

  • 65% of people attended movies once a wk.

  • 15,000 movie theaters

  • Radios- 13 million in 1930 to 28 million by 1940


Movie stars of the 30 s

Movie Stars of the 30’s

  • Clark Gable

  • Marlene Dietrich

  • James Cagney

  • Marx Brothers


Clark gable

Clark Gable


Marlene dietrich

Marlene Dietrich


James cagney

James Cagney


Popular flicks of the 30 s

Popular Flicks of the 30’s

  • Gone with the Wind – 1939

  • Flying Down to Rio – 1933

  • The Wizard of Oz – 1939

  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs – 1937

  • Little Caesar – 1930

  • The Public Enemy - 1931


G one with the wind

Gone with the Wind


Fred and ginger

Fred and Ginger


Follow the yellow brick road

Follow the yellow brick road


Snow white finds the dwarfs house the silly song

Snow White finds the dwarfs house / The Silly Song


Popular comedies

Popular Comedies

  • Monkey Business – 1931

  • Duck Soup - 1931

  • Modern Times - 1936


Popular movie comedians

Popular Movie Comedians

  • Laurel and Hardy

  • Abbott and Castello

  • The Three Stooges


Who s on first abbott and costello

Who's on first?Abbott and Costello


The election of 32 fdr and the 1st new deal

  • Three Stooges


Positive new deal movies good wins over evil

Positive New Deal MoviesGood wins over Evil

  • Mr. Smith Goes to Washington - 1939

  • Mr. Deeds Goes to Town - 1936

  • Both Directed by Frank Capra


Radio entertains

Radio Entertains

  • Orson Wells

  • Bob Hope

  • Jack Benny

  • George Burns

  • Gracie Allen


Bob hope and judy garland

Bob Hope and Judy Garland


Jack benny cast

Jack Benny Cast


George and gracie

George and Gracie


Tragedy on radio

Tragedy on Radio

  • Crash of the Hindenburg

  • A German Zeppelin

  • NJ, May 6th, 1937

  • “Oh the Humanity!!!”


The arts in depression america

The Arts in Depression America

  • Federal Art Project was part of the WPA

  • Artists were paid to promote positive images of American life (100,000 paintings)

  • Murals, posters, and art education flourished

  • Mexican Muralist – Diego Rivera inspired these artists


New deal mural

New Deal Mural


American painters

American Painters

  • Edward Hopper

  • Thomas Hart Benton

  • Grant Wood


Hopper

Hopper


Benton

Benton


Grant wood

Grant Wood


American gothic

American Gothic


Depression singers

Depression Singers

  • Woody Guthrie

  • Used music to capture the hardship of America

  • Fled the Dust Bowl

  • Federal Music Project – Preserved Folk music


Federal writers project

Federal Writers Project

  • Paid more than 6,000 writers

  • Richard Wright – Native Son ( 1940)

  • Zora Neale Hurston – Their Eyes Are Watching God ( 1937)

  • Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath ( 1939)


Federal theater project

Federal Theater Project

  • Playwrights/Actors and Directors

  • Launched careers of:

  • Burt Lancaster

  • Arthur Miller

  • John Houseman

  • Orsen wells


The new deal the limits of reform

The New Deal –The Limits of Reform

  • What was the impact of the New Deal on Women?

  • What was FDR’s attitude toward African Americans?

  • What groups formed the New Deal Coalition?

  • Who were the supporters of FDR’s New Deal?


Fdr court packing scheme

FDR Court Packing Scheme

  • 1937 “Court Packing Bill”

  • 6 additional Justices

  • FDR faced a storm of protests

  • Due to retirement FDR eventually got his way.


New deal for women

New Deal for Women

  • Frances Perkins became Sec. of Labor

  • Two female diplomats

  • Two female judges

  • New Deal had mixed results, women were thought to give up a job if a man was without one

  • Women in the workplace grew from 11.7% in 1930 to 15.6% by 1940


Breaking ground

Breaking Ground

  • FDR hired more than 100 African Americans for key New Deal posts.

  • Mary McLeod Bethune – Advisor to FDR on African American concerns.

  • Educator, Women’s Org., and government


Fdr fails to support civil rights

FDR Fails to Support Civil Rights

  • FDR never committed to Civil Rights for blacks

  • He was afraid of losing Southern white democrats’ support for New Deal programs

  • Discrimination existed in the NRA, CCC, and the TVA

  • Eleanor Roosevelt was helpful, and African Americans supported FDR


The roosevelt recession

The Roosevelt Recession

  • The economy improved significantly by 1937 (Unemployment 14%)

  • FDR cut spending for the WPA and Farm Programs

  • Stock Market collapsed in 1937

  • Emergency Spending Bill in 1938

  • Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

  • The Housing Act of 1937


Impact of the new deal

Impact of the New Deal


Essential questions2

Essential Questions:

  • What are the opinions about the effectiveness of the New Deal?

  • What are the lasting legacies of the New Deal?


Supporters and critics

Supporters and Critics

  • Conservatives felt the New Deal made the Federal Government too large and stifled free enterprise

  • Liberals felt he did not do enough to eliminate social and economic inequalities.

  • WWII ended the Depression, not the New Deal


Legacies of the new deal

Legacies of the New Deal

  • Bridges,Dams,TunnelsPublic Buildings, and Hospitals

  • A more active Federal Gov., the welfare state, help for citizens


Legacies of the new deal ii

Legacies of the New Deal II

  • Tenn. Valley Authority

  • Federal Deposit Corp.

  • Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC)

  • Crop Allotment

  • Social Security

  • Gains for Unions ( NLRB)


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