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The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal. Relief, Recovery and Reform. Election Of 1932. FDR (D) vs. Hoover (R). Essential Questions:. What did FDR mean when he offered a “New Deal’? Why was the election of 1932 a turning point in American politics?. FDR Facts. Born in 1882

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The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal

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The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal

Relief, Recovery and Reform


Election Of 1932

  • FDR (D) vs. Hoover (R)


Essential Questions:

  • What did FDR mean when he offered a “New Deal’?

  • Why was the election of 1932 a turning point in American politics?


FDR Facts

  • Born in 1882

  • Went to Harvard

  • Lawyer

  • NY State Senate

  • Assistant Sec. of the Navy during WWI


FDR Facts II

  • Married Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Ran for VP in 1920

  • Contracted polio in 1921

  • Governor of NY 1929-1932

  • Willing to experiment with government roles


Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Niece of TR

  • Married FDR in 1905, 6 children

  • Social Worker

  • Fought for public housing, gov. reform, birth control, and better conditions for women


Election of 1932

*Hoover

-Minimal Gov. Action

-Strict view of Gov.

-Less Gov. the better


Election of 1932

  • FDR

    -Willing to experiment with the role of Gov.

    -Supported broadening the role of Gov.


FDR

  • “Can do” attitude

  • Confident and Friendly

  • Compassionate

  • Inaugural Address 1933

  • “ …the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”


Advisors to FDR

  • “The Brain Trust”

    • Raymond Moley (Columbia)

    • Rexford Tugwell (Columbia)

    • Felix Frankfurter (Harvard)


FDR’s Cabinet

  • Sec. of the Interior – Harold L. Ickes

  • Sec. of Agriculture – Henry A. Wallace

  • Sec. of the Treasury – Henry Morgenthau

  • Sec. of Labor- F. Perkins


Essential Questions:

  • What initial steps did FDR take to reform banking and finance?

  • What were some New Deal Programs?

  • Who were the critics of FDR’s New Deal?


The Hundred Days

  • 3/9/33 to 6/16/33

  • Congress passed more than 15 pieces of legislation

  • Significantly expanded the role of the Federal Gov. in the economy.


Banking Reform

  • March 5th all banks closed by FDR

  • Emergency Banking Act – Healthy banks to reopen, management of failed banks.

  • Increased Gov. regulatory power over money and banking


Banking Reform Part II

  • First “Fireside Chat” March 1933

  • Glass-Steagall Act 1933- Established the FDIC

  • Federal Securities Act 1933-

    Established the SEC to regulate the stock market


Prohibition Repealed

  • FDR pushed Congress to allow the sale and manufacture of beer and wine.

  • Effort to raise gov. revenues through taxes

  • 21st Amend. (End of 1933)


Rural Assistance

  • The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- Gov. paid farmers to limit production.

  • $200 million to plow under 10 million acres.

  • 6 million pigs slaughtered.

  • $ for farmers and prices raised farm prices


Work Projects

CCC – Civilian Conservation Corp – “Tree Army”

Employed 3 million men

Paid $25 - $30 a month

Men lived in work camps

Planted 200 million trees, 800 state parks, and 46,000 bridges


More Work Projects

* Provided money to states to create jobs in construction of schools and community buildings.

Created the (PWA)

Part of (FERA)


Work Projects III

  • Civilian Works Administration (CWA) established in Nov. 1933

  • 4 million jobs

  • Built 40,000 schools

  • 500,000 miles of road


  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

  • 1933 – Federal Agency to construct dams and power plants along the TN river.

    *Electricity, Flood Control, Recreation


Recovery in Business

  • NIRA wanted to promote industrial growth

  • NIRA established codes of fair practice for employers, employees, and consumers.

  • Nat. Recovery Adm. (NRA)


National Recovery Administration (NIRA)

  • Set Prices and established standards

  • Codes limited production

  • Workers could unionize and bargain collectively


NIRA/NRA Unconstitutional!!

  • In 1935 the Supreme Court ruled the NIRA Unconstitutional

  • They claimed it gave the Pres. too much power

  • Fed. Gov. was involved in state commerce


Recovery In Housing

  • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)- Provided gov. loans to those facing forclosure.

  • National Housing Act 1934 – created the Federal Housing Administration to give loans for mortgages and repairs.


Providing Relief

  • Federal Emergency Relief Adm. (FERA) was funded with $500 million for direct relief.

  • Half given to the states for food and clothing


Providing Relief II- FERA

  • Helped unemployed, aging, and the ill.

  • $ was given to states to support work relief programs. (CWA/PWA)


Left Turn and the Second New Deal-FDR’s Critics


Deficit Spending

  • More $ was spent on the New Deal than the gov. received in revenue

  • National Debt increased, no balanced budgets

  • FDR – “necessary evil” during crisis


John Maynard Keynes

  • British economist

  • Gov. should spend to provide $ for consumers

  • Deficit Spending is necessary to stimulate the economy.

  • “Priming the Pump”


Liberal Critics

  • Criticism of The New Deal from the political left

  • Socialist and Communist

  • The New Deal did not go far enough to help the poor and reform the econ. system


Conservative Critics

  • Too much time on direct relief

  • FDR socialized the economy…big gov.

  • AAA + NIRA gave gov. too much control

  • interfered with free-market


Supreme Court Reacts


Unconstitutional!!

  • 1935 NIRA Unconstitutional!!!

  • Gave FDR lawmaking power

  • 1936 AAA Unconstitutional

  • Agriculture is a local matter to be regulated by the states


Three Critics

  • Father Charles Coughlin

  • Dr. Francis Townsend

  • Huey Long


Two Demagogues

  • Demagogues - Leaders who manipulate people with half- truths, deceptive promises, and scare tactics.


Father Charles Coughlin

  • Roman Catholic Priest

  • Radio Show that combined political, economic, and religious ideas

  • Audience 40-45 million

  • Initial Supporter of FDR


Father Charles Coughlin II

  • Wanted a guaranteed annual income and nationalization of banks

  • Anti- Semitic


Dr. Francis Townsend

  • Physician and Health Officer,Long Beach. CA

  • FDR did not help the poor and elderly

  • Monthly pension benefits to the aged - $200 over 60


Huey Long “King Fish”

  • Senator from Louisiana

  • Early supporter of the New Deal

  • Presidential Ambitions

  • “Every Man a King!”

  • Share our Wealth Plan - SOW 27,000 clubs, 7.5 million

  • Assassinated in 1935


FDR Looks Ahead

  • He realized more needed to be done to help the people and solve the economic problems

  • The Second New Deal or Second Hundred Days


The Second New Deal

  • What was the purpose of the Second New Deal?

  • What were the New Deal programs for farmers?

  • What Second New Deal Programs helped young people and artistic professionals?

  • What economic and labor reforms that were carried out under the Second New Deal?


Second New Deal

  • More Help for Farmers

  • First AAA was ruled Unconstitutional due to a processing tax

  • Second AAA again paid farmers subsidies not to grow surplus crops


Farm Security Admin.

  • FSA loaned more than $1 billion to small farmers to purchase land.

  • Camps for migrant farmers

  • Help for share-croppers

  • Hired Photographers to capture rural life

  • Ex. Dorothea Lange


FDR extends Relief

  • Works Progress Adm. (WPA) 1935-1943

  • Spend $11 billion to give jobs to 8 million workers.

  • Constructed 651,000 miles of streets

  • Constructed more than 125,000 public buildings

  • Women 300 mil garments


WPA Activities

  • Wrote Guides to cities

  • Collected Historical Slave Narratives

  • Painted Murals on Walls

  • Federal Theater Project FTP

  • National Youth Administration ( NYA)16-25

  • Education, Jobs, & Advice


Improving Labor

  • 1935 Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional

  • Workers had been granted the right to organize in unions and bargain collectively

  • Workers wanted new laws


The Wagner Act

  • Legalized collective bargaining and closed shops

  • No threats, blacklisting, or spying on unions

    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

  • NLRB – Enforces provisions


Fair Labor Standards Act

  • Max. Hrs. per week 44

  • Min. wage at $.25 per hour

  • Set rules for workers under 16

  • Banned hazardous work for those under 18.


Social Security Act of 1935

  • Old Age pensions and survivors benefits 65 and older.

  • Unemployment Insurance – Tax on employers paid $15-$18 per week

  • Aid for dependent children who were disabled


Unions Triumph

  • Membership rose from 3 mil in 1933 to 10.5 million by 1941

  • By 1945, 36% of workers were Unionized.

  • John L. Lewis the United Mine Workers Pres. Joined with other Union Rep of the AFL to create the Committee of Industrial Org. (CIO)


Unions Triumph II

  • The CIO sent reps into steel mills, coal mines, auto plants, and southern mills to recruit workers

  • (The AFL suspended the CIO)

  • Nov. 1938 both formed a coalition and became the Congress of Industrial Org. (CIO) with Lewis as Pres.


Era of Strikes

  • Companies didn’t accept Union’s demands

  • Workers used Sit-down Strikes

  • Workers refused to leave the building

  • 1936 Rubber Plant in Akron

  • 1936 General Motors Flint, Mich. (UAW) 2 mo. GM gave in


Unsuccessful Strikes

  • 1937 Ford Motor Co. , Detroit

  • UAW officials beaten by Henry’s Ford’s men while trying to recruit by passing out pamphlets

  • Other strikes became violent

  • 1939 the Supreme Court outlawed sit-down strikes. (too potent and obstructed negotiation)


New Deal Coalition

  • FDR vs. Alfred Landon (R) Election of ‘36

  • FDR won in a landslide

  • Unions

  • Industrial Workers Skilled/Unskilled

  • Recent Immigrants

  • Roman Catholics

  • Jews

  • Northern African- Americans

  • Farmers


The New Deal and the West


Regulating Utilities

  • Rural Electrification Adm. (REA)

  • Offered loans to Cooperatives and Farms to build plants and power lines to rural areas

  • Public Utility Holding Act -No Holding Co. Ownership of utilities


Depression in Rural Areas

  • Falling Crop prices

  • Rising debt

  • 400,000 farm foreclosures

  • Had to tenant farm


The Dust Bowl

  • Overproduction of land

  • Unsuitable for farming

  • Droughts

  • Windstorms

  • KS,CO,TX,NM,OK


Farmer Exodus

  • Farmers and Families pack –up

  • Head West on Route 66

  • California

  • “Okies”

  • The Grapes of Wrath


Mexican- Americans and the New Deal

  • Worked in the Southwest as farm workers since the 1920s’

  • Discriminated against by the CCC and WPA because they had no permanent address

  • Farm workers tried to unionize


BoulderDam Project I

  • Approved in 1928

  • Construction began in 1930 and ended in 1936.

  • Boulder City , NV Housed the workers.

  • Hoover financed the construction by using future profits of electricity


Boulder Dam Project

  • $700 million dollar public works project

  • 726ft. High and 1,244 ft. long

  • Provided electricity and flood control. (CO river basin)

  • Provided thousands of jobs

  • Water source for LA and LV


Native- Americans in the 1930’s

  • In 1933, FDR appointed John Collier as commissioner of Indian affairs

  • Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

    • Economic- Native American land was held by the entire tribe

    • Cultural- Boarding school were reduced and children could attend school on the reservation

    • Political- Tribes could elect tribal councils to govern the reservations


John Collier


Culture in the 1930’s


Depression Era Culture Essential Questions:

  • 1.) What entertainment did radio and movies provide?

  • 2.) Who were some writers and artists of the New Deal era?


Golden Age of Movies and Radio

  • 65% of people attended movies once a wk.

  • 15,000 movie theaters

  • Radios- 13 million in 1930 to 28 million by 1940


Movie Stars of the 30’s

  • Clark Gable

  • Marlene Dietrich

  • James Cagney

  • Marx Brothers


Clark Gable


Marlene Dietrich


James Cagney


Popular Flicks of the 30’s

  • Gone with the Wind – 1939

  • Flying Down to Rio – 1933

  • The Wizard of Oz – 1939

  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs – 1937

  • Little Caesar – 1930

  • The Public Enemy - 1931


Gone with the Wind


Fred and Ginger


Follow the yellow brick road


Snow White finds the dwarfs house / The Silly Song


Popular Comedies

  • Monkey Business – 1931

  • Duck Soup - 1931

  • Modern Times - 1936


Popular Movie Comedians

  • Laurel and Hardy

  • Abbott and Castello

  • The Three Stooges


Who's on first?Abbott and Costello


  • Three Stooges


Positive New Deal MoviesGood wins over Evil

  • Mr. Smith Goes to Washington - 1939

  • Mr. Deeds Goes to Town - 1936

  • Both Directed by Frank Capra


Radio Entertains

  • Orson Wells

  • Bob Hope

  • Jack Benny

  • George Burns

  • Gracie Allen


Bob Hope and Judy Garland


Jack Benny Cast


George and Gracie


Tragedy on Radio

  • Crash of the Hindenburg

  • A German Zeppelin

  • NJ, May 6th, 1937

  • “Oh the Humanity!!!”


The Arts in Depression America

  • Federal Art Project was part of the WPA

  • Artists were paid to promote positive images of American life (100,000 paintings)

  • Murals, posters, and art education flourished

  • Mexican Muralist – Diego Rivera inspired these artists


New Deal Mural


American Painters

  • Edward Hopper

  • Thomas Hart Benton

  • Grant Wood


Hopper


Benton


Grant Wood


American Gothic


Depression Singers

  • Woody Guthrie

  • Used music to capture the hardship of America

  • Fled the Dust Bowl

  • Federal Music Project – Preserved Folk music


Federal Writers Project

  • Paid more than 6,000 writers

  • Richard Wright – Native Son ( 1940)

  • Zora Neale Hurston – Their Eyes Are Watching God ( 1937)

  • Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath ( 1939)


Federal Theater Project

  • Playwrights/Actors and Directors

  • Launched careers of:

  • Burt Lancaster

  • Arthur Miller

  • John Houseman

  • Orsen wells


The New Deal –The Limits of Reform

  • What was the impact of the New Deal on Women?

  • What was FDR’s attitude toward African Americans?

  • What groups formed the New Deal Coalition?

  • Who were the supporters of FDR’s New Deal?


FDR Court Packing Scheme

  • 1937 “Court Packing Bill”

  • 6 additional Justices

  • FDR faced a storm of protests

  • Due to retirement FDR eventually got his way.


New Deal for Women

  • Frances Perkins became Sec. of Labor

  • Two female diplomats

  • Two female judges

  • New Deal had mixed results, women were thought to give up a job if a man was without one

  • Women in the workplace grew from 11.7% in 1930 to 15.6% by 1940


Breaking Ground

  • FDR hired more than 100 African Americans for key New Deal posts.

  • Mary McLeod Bethune – Advisor to FDR on African American concerns.

  • Educator, Women’s Org., and government


FDR Fails to Support Civil Rights

  • FDR never committed to Civil Rights for blacks

  • He was afraid of losing Southern white democrats’ support for New Deal programs

  • Discrimination existed in the NRA, CCC, and the TVA

  • Eleanor Roosevelt was helpful, and African Americans supported FDR


The Roosevelt Recession

  • The economy improved significantly by 1937 (Unemployment 14%)

  • FDR cut spending for the WPA and Farm Programs

  • Stock Market collapsed in 1937

  • Emergency Spending Bill in 1938

  • Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

  • The Housing Act of 1937


Impact of the New Deal


Essential Questions:

  • What are the opinions about the effectiveness of the New Deal?

  • What are the lasting legacies of the New Deal?


Supporters and Critics

  • Conservatives felt the New Deal made the Federal Government too large and stifled free enterprise

  • Liberals felt he did not do enough to eliminate social and economic inequalities.

  • WWII ended the Depression, not the New Deal


Legacies of the New Deal

  • Bridges,Dams,TunnelsPublic Buildings, and Hospitals

  • A more active Federal Gov., the welfare state, help for citizens


Legacies of the New Deal II

  • Tenn. Valley Authority

  • Federal Deposit Corp.

  • Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC)

  • Crop Allotment

  • Social Security

  • Gains for Unions ( NLRB)


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