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Report Writing & Referencing. A lecture for Year 1 B.Ed students By Karen Dellar Study & Learning Centre RMIT University. A Report :. Is a structured written presentation directed to interested readers for a specific purpose, aim or request It’s function is to

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Report writing referencing l.jpg

Report Writing & Referencing

A lecture for Year 1 B.Ed students

By Karen Dellar

Study & Learning Centre

RMIT University


A report l.jpg

A Report :

  • Is a structured written presentation directed to interested readers for a specific purpose, aim or request

  • It’s function is to

    • Give an account of something,

    • Answer a question

    • Offer a solution

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What is the difference between an essay and a report l.jpg

What is the difference between an Essay and a Report???


Essay report l.jpg

Essay Report

Establish a proposition or responds to a question or proposition

Investigates, presents and analyzes information to help make decisions or account for decisions.

Has linked and fluent paragraph structure

Has defined sections with (sub)-headings and numbering

Uses fluent sentence structure to express ideas.

Uses lists and bullet points for clarity and brevity

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Essay report5 l.jpg

Essay Report

Sections are easily identified and can be read in isolation.

Needs to be read as a whole

Is a factual and objective presentation of data.

Presents a writers opinion or interpretation (albeit supported with evidence.)

Has a specific audience appropriate to its purposes.

Is aimed at a broad academic audience

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EssayReport

Ideally, completely text based

Includes diagrams, tables and graphs

Large amounts of supporting information are included in appendices.

Supporting information is woven into the text

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The difference l.jpg

The difference???

Report

Essay

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An effective report is l.jpg

An Effective Report is:

  • Appropriate to its purpose and audience

  • Accurate

  • Logical

  • Clear and concise

  • Well organized under headings

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General Structure of a Report

  • Transmittal document ( for business purposes)

  • Title page

  • Table of contents

  • Abstract/Executive Summary

  • Introduction

  • Discussion

  • Conclusions

  • Recommendations

  • Bibliography

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More Detailed Structure of a Report

  • Title

  • Executive summary / Abstract

  • Table of Contents

  • 1.Introduction

    • 1.1Purpose of the report

    • 1.2Issues

    • 1.3Research methods

    • 1.4Limitations and assumptions

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Structure of a report l.jpg

Structure of a Report

  • 2.Discussion

    • 2.1Literature Review

      • 2.1.1.Issue #1

      • 2.1.2.Issue #2

    • 2.2Method

      • 2.2.1.Procedure

      • 2.2.2.Sample Size

    • 2.3Discussion and analysis of data

      • 2.3.1.Issue #1

      • 2.3.2.Issue #2

      • 2.3.3.Reliability /accuracy of data

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Structure of a Report

  • 3.Conclusions

  • 4.Recommendations

  • 5.References

  • 6.Appendices

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The assignment the case study of a child s literacy l.jpg

The Assignment: The Case Study of a Child’s Literacy


The report is about your student l.jpg

The report is about your student

A (unique) Title

Literacy Needs of C21

Related to your student

Needs analysis of student

Child’s background

Actual Reading Test and Analysis of observations

Child’s Involvement with Reading

Recommendations for student

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Use literature to support what you want to say about your student l.jpg

Use literature to support what you want to say about your student

literature

Literacy Needs of C21

Related to your student

Needs analysis of student

literature

Actual Reading Test and Analysis of observations

Child’s background

literature

Child’s Involvement with Reading

Recommendations for student

literature

literature

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A recommended procedure l.jpg

A recommended procedure

  • Complete all observations and analyses of student first.

  • Think about the overall picture of your student, the main issues, strengths or needs. With these in mind:

    • Write up the background, observations and analyses

    • Compile supporting material for appendices

    • Write the Recommendations

    • Write the Introduction

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A recommended procedure

  • Final compilation of reference list / bibliography

  • Write Abstract (if required)

  • Insert Table of Contents

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Referencing: APA Style


You must cite a reference source when you use l.jpg

You must cite a reference source when you use:

  • a direct quote

  • information expressed in your own words (ie. paraphrase)

  • statistics

  • diagrams, tables, graphs

  • photos

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You do not need to cite a reference when you use l.jpg

You do not need to cite a reference when you use:

  • Your own personal experience or opinion

  • Common knowledge (definition?)

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In text referencing l.jpg

In-Text Referencing

DeFazio (1999) claims that referencing conventions for technological resources will become more consistent with wider use.

Conventions for referencing the internet will gain greater consistency with increased use in scholastic work. (DeFazio, 1999)

The rules for referencing sources are “formulaic and very strict” (DeFazio, 1999, p.107)

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Paragraph Example (APA)

Disadvantaged groups within society also experience inequalities in health care. Thompson (1999) states that a person’s health has a direct relationship to their social and economic standing within the community. Groups with a low socioeconomic status have poorer health than those with a high socioeconomic status (National Health Strategy, 1998). The high infant mortality rates for Indigenous Australians and the lower life expectancy for Aboriginal women (Brown, 2001) are two examples that show inequalities in health care for particular groups within the Australian community. Therefore, for health programs to be more effective, the community needs to look at …

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Other examples l.jpg

Other examples

  • Use of et al. for 3 to 5 authors of a book or journal article

    Harter, Schmidt and Hayes (2002) argue that individual, group and organisation level factors are related to performance and retention.

    Harter et al. (2002) also state that job satisfaction is important and is directly related to retention.

  • Secondary sources

    Brown and Martin (as cited in Harmon, 2002) have reported a case study of a student with differing literacy issues in his first and second languages.

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The Reference List

  • A new page at the end of your assignment

  • Arranged in alphabetical order according to author’s surname

  • Includes all references cited in-text

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Reference List Entry

DeFazio, T. (1999) Studying in Australia: a guide for international students, Sydney, Allen & Unwin.

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Some useful APA Resources


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RMIT Referencing Sites

  • Quick Guide http://mams.rmit.edu.au/x3tdu4s30085.rtf

  • Longer Version http://mams.rmit.edu.au/szq3g615ahbdz.rtf

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APA Electronic Style Guide 2007(now available in library catalogue)

https://login.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/connect?session=sRpltsIS8Yazv9fn&url=https://login.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/login/digital/ereserve/APAguide/style_reference.pdf

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Google “APA Referencing”

  • http://library.curtin.edu.au/research_and_information_skills/referencing/apa.pdf

  • http://www.library.jcu.edu.au/LibraryGuides/apa.shtml

  • http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/apa.html

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The main reasons for referencing

  • To show you have read widely on a topic & you have identified important ideas in other writers’ research

  • To draw on experts to support the points you are making and hence make them more persuasive

  • To allow the reader to locate, check and follow up the sources used

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Plagiarism

  • If you do not indicate the sources of your ideas, it could appear that you are wrongfully claiming another author’s ideas or words to be your own

  • This is known as plagiarism

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How to avoid plagiarism l.jpg

How to avoid plagiarism

  • Become familiar with the

    American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system

  • Develop a system to record bibliographic information for all sources you use

  • Take careful notes and develop a system to distinguish:

    *Text you have copied from the source

    *Text you have paraphrased or summarised

    *Your own ideas

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How to avoid plagiarism33 l.jpg

How to avoid plagiarism

  • Include APA in-text referencing (author, date) with every draft

  • Compile your reference list as you write your assignment

  • Get into the habit of paraphrasing appropriately

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Paraphrasing Preferred Please

  • Lecturer’s usually prefer paraphrasing to direct quotations.

    Why?

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Quotes l.jpg

Quotes…..

“blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,”

(Thingo, 1999, p.22)

“blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,

blah, blah, blah, blah,”

(Thingo, 1999, p.22)

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Paraphrasing l.jpg

Paraphrasing……

  • Shorter

  • To the point

  • More elegant

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Task change this quote to a paraphrase l.jpg

Smith (1999) states, “Children rely mainly on parents for gender stereotypes” (p. 12).

Task: change this quote to a paraphrase

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Suggestions l.jpg

Suggestions

Smith (1999) states that parents are important gender stereotypes for children.

Parents play an important role as gender stereotypes for children (Smith, 1999).

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Paraphrasing39 l.jpg

Paraphrasing

What strategies did you use to complete the task?

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