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Mental health climate change and public health

Mental Health, Climate Change and Public Health

Minnesota Climate and Health Program

Minnesota Department of Health

Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit

July 2013


Notice

Notice

MDH developed this presentation based on scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals. References for information can be found in the relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation.


Outline

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Definitions

Definitions

  • Weather — conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time

  • Climate — conditions of the atmosphere over long periods of time (30 year standard averaging period)


Definitions1

Definitions

  • Mental health – a state of well-being in which every individualrealizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to his or her community


Outline1

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Observed climate changes

Observed Climate Changes

There have been three recent significant observed climate trends in Minnesota:

  • The average temperature is increasing

  • The average number of days with a high dew point may be increasing

  • The character of precipitation is changing


Outline2

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Temperature changes in minnesota

Temperature Changes in Minnesota


Temperature changes in minnesota1

Temperature Changes in Minnesota

Significant observations in warming pattern:

  • Winter temperatures have been rising about twice as fast as annual average temperatures

  • Minimum or overnight low temperatures have been rising faster than maximum or daytime high temperatures


Outline3

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Dew point changes

Dew Point Changes

  • Dew point – a measure of water vapor in the air

  • A high dew point makes it more difficult for sweat to evaporate off the skin, which is one of the main mechanisms the body uses to cool itself

  • The number of days with high dew point temperatures (≥ 70°F) may be increasing in Minnesota


Dew point changes1

Dew Point Changes


Outline4

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Changes in precipitation

Changes in Precipitation


Changes in precipitation1

Changes in Precipitation

Precipitation in Minnesota is changing:

  • More localized, heavy precipitation events

  • Potential to cause both increased flooding and drought


Outline5

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Climate change awareness

Climate Change Awareness

Understanding climate change is difficult

  • Hazards are experienced differently based on geographic location, population, and season

  • Effects of climate are unknown and uncertain

  • Cannot be identified by personal experience alone

    We have to rely on scientific models and expert judgment, often through the lens of mass media


Climate change awareness1

Climate Change Awareness


Climate change awareness2

Climate Change Awareness

  • Emotional reactions to the awareness of climate change include:

    • Fear

    • Sadness

    • Depression

    • Anxiety

    • Helpless and hopeless

    • Anger


Outline6

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Mental health impacts of climate change

Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

  • Psychological effects of climate change are likely to be gradual and cumulative

  • The connection to climate change may not always be clear to those affected

  • Manifests as two types of stress

    • Discrete

    • Continuous


Outline7

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Place

Place

  • Places are “nested collections of human experience, locations with which people and communities have particular affective relationships.”

  • Ties to a place are a part of identity

    • Familiarity

    • attachment

  • Climate is fundamental to an individual’s understanding of place


Place1

Place

  • Place is a key determinant of exposure to the impacts of climate change

  • Climate change may alter look and feel of the defining attributes a place

  • Solastalgia: palpable sense of dislocation and loss that felt when changes to a local environment are perceived as harmful

  • The loss of a connection to place and sense of belonging in that place undermines mental health

  • Attachment to place is so strong that it can be a primary driver of inaction


Outline8

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Disasters and mental health

Disasters and Mental Health

  • Individual vulnerabilities:

    • Proximity to the disaster

    • Low socioeconomic status

    • Low social connectedness

    • Existing mental illness

  • Community vulnerabilities:

    • Outdated emergency plans

    • Shortage of mental health resources at time of event

    • Repeated exposure to disaster or crisis


Disasters and mental health1

Disasters and Mental Health

  • Poor mental health outcomes are not only attributable to exposure to the event

    • Displacement

    • Unstable or unknown housing circumstances

    • Lack of access to support services

    • Loss, particularly of employment, possessions


Disasters and mental health2

Disasters and Mental Health

  • Specific post-disaster mental health outcomes may include:

    • Confusion

    • Depression

    • Anxiety

    • Grief

    • Post-traumatic stress disorder

  • Case Study: Hurricane Katrina

    • Many victims have experienced stress disorders

    • Very high rates of suicide attempts (78.6 times higher than baseline rate)

    • High rates of suicide completion (14.7 times higher than baseline rate)

    • High rates of depression

    • Domestic violence/child abuse


Disasters and mental health3

Disasters and Mental Health

  • Risk of living in ‘disaster-prone’ areas

    • Cumulative mental health impacts are associated with the repeated exposure to natural disaster

    • Ongoing uncertainty, anxiety, dread can cause a build up of stress before disaster occurs


Disasters and mental health4

Disasters and Mental Health

  • Displacement can lead to grief, anxiety, loss

  • Fractured social networks and community connection

  • Impact on receiving communities

    • Real or perceived lack of resources such as support services, housing, jobs, and natural resources

    • Perceived competition for resources can contribute to discrimination


Outline9

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Mental health climate change and public health

Loss

  • Climate change can contribute to several sources of loss:

    • Loss of bio-diversity

    • Loss of habitat

    • Extinction of species

    • Crop failure

    • Water shortage

    • Drought

    • Loss of livelihood

    • Forced migration/displacement and the loss of place

    • Loss of property, pets, possessions


Mental health climate change and public health

Loss

  • Loss can impact our sense of self and disrupt our sense of place

  • A series of losses is particularly devastating

    • Distinct bereavement for each loss

    • Impacts slow to dissipate without support


Outline10

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Climate change and violence

Climate Change and Violence

  • As temperature rises, so does the incidence of violence

    • Increase in murders, assaults, violent suicide, and domestic violence when the weather is hot

    • Predicted: 24,000 assaults or murders in the US per year for every 2° F increase in average temperature

  • Stress of experiencing natural disaster can lead to violence


Mental health impact of violence

Mental Health Impact of Violence

Mental health conditions significantly more common amongst those exposed to violence:

  • Anxiety

  • Depression

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder

  • Aggression and violent behavior

  • Increased risk of suicide


Outline11

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Vulnerable populations

Vulnerable Populations

  • Vulnerable communities are already beginning to experience disruptions to the social, economic, and environmental determinants of mental health

    • Disaster-prone areas

    • Economically dependent on environment


Vulnerable populations1

Vulnerable Populations

  • Individuals who are at increased risk of mental health impacts of climate change include:

    • Persons with pre-existing mental illness

    • Persons on low incomes and/or unemployed

    • Persons who experience disaster

    • Victims of violence


Vulnerable populations financial hardship

Vulnerable Populations: Financial Hardship

  • Financial hardships related to climate change

    • Reduced income or employment in climate sensitive industries

    • Increased costs of essential goods and services

      • Disruption to food systems

      • Decrease or loss of clean water supply

      • Higher insurance rates


Vulnerable populations children

Vulnerable Populations: Children

  • Children may understand and experience the threat of climate change very different than their parents or grandparents

  • Children so troubled by the state of the world that they honestly believe it will come to an end before they get older

    • The psychological impact on children has been compared to the impact on children worried about nuclear arms during the Cold War Era

  • Children are more emotionally vulnerable to increased family violence and the occurrence of natural disasters


Outline12

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


Psychological barriers to climate action

Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Ignorance

  • Uncertainty

  • Denial

  • Place Attachment

  • Perceived Behavioral Control


Psychological barriers to climate action1

Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Social Comparison, Norms, Conformity, and Perceived Equity

  • Conflicting Goals and Aspirations

  • Belief in Solutions Outside of Human Control


Outline13

Outline

  • Climate Change in Minnesota

    • Temperature

    • Dew Point

    • Precipitation

  • Climate Change Awareness

  • Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

    • Place

    • Disasters and Mental Health

    • Loss

    • Violence

  • Vulnerable Populations

  • Psychological Barriers to Climate Action

  • Role of Public Health


The role of public health

The Role of Public Health

  • Mental/Behavioral Health Annex to All-Hazards Plan

  • Reduce the number of people with traumatic stress reactions by rapidly restoring key psychosocial domains

    • Safety and security

    • reuniting families

    • systems of justice

    • foundations for returning to work

    • institutions that provide meaning


The role of public health1

The Role of Public Health


The role of public health2

The Role of Public Health

  • Local public health departments are not expected to provide a full range of mental and behavioral health

  • Identify and partner with the mental health resources available in your community before a disaster affects your community


The role of public health3

The Role of Public Health

  • Well-meaning attempts to create urgency about climate change can lead to denial, paralysis, apathy

  • Focus on place– understand and communicate the local exposures of climate change and the response


The role of public health4

The Role of Public Health

  • Promote the benefits of climate action:

    • Positive coping mechanism

    • Personal meaning and satisfaction

    • Sense of control or contribution

    • Climate action has physical health benefits as well


General resources for public health

General Resources for Public Health

Society’s Grand Challenges: Global Climate Change

American Psychological Association

http://www.apa.org/science/resources/grand-challenges.aspx

“Human behavior is recognized as a main contributor to today’s climate crisis, and yet, it is one of the least understood components of this complex problem. Learn how psychologists are studying ways to address global climate change.”

Ambit Network at the University of Minnesota is a leader in helping communities use research-based prevention and intervention techniques to increase children’s ability to deal with trauma.

http://www.cehd.umn.edu/fsos/projects/ambit/default.asp

“A Public Health Approach to Prevention of Behavioral Health Conditions”

A Presentation from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

http://store.samhsa.gov/product/A-Public-Health-Approach-to-Prevention-of-Behavioral-Health-Conditions/SMA12-PHYDE051512

This presentation discusses the public health model to prevent substance abuse and mental health disorders. Additionally, it reviews some of the challenges in preventing behavioral health problems and potential solutions, with an emphasis on early intervention.


Disaster behavioral health resources for public health

Disaster Behavioral Health Resources for Public Health

Behavioral Health and Emergency Preparedness

Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Emergency Preparedness

http://www.health.state.mn.us/oep/responsesystems/behavioral.html

This website provides expanded information on Psychological First Aid, continuity of operations, resources for responders, disaster planning, and suicide prevention.

Disaster Behavior Health Information Series

SAMHSA

A collection of resources, presentations, and toolkits pertinent to disaster behavioral health. Resources target specific populations or relate to specific types of disaster.

http://www.samhsa.gov/dtac/dbhis/

Psychological First Aid Mobile App

National Child Traumatic Stress Network

http://www.nctsnet.org/content/pfa-mobile

PFA Mobile™ lets responders review PFA guidelines and assess their readiness to deliver PFA in the field. The app provides additional support for successful interactions with different survival groups.


Summary

Summary

  • Minnesota’s climate is changing

    • Increases in temperature

    • Increases in high dew point temperatures

    • Changing character of precipitation

  • Climate change can have harmful impacts to our mental health

    • Continuous stress due to a changing environment

    • Discrete stress from exposure to natural disasters and other emergencies

  • Certain populations are at greater risk of mental illness due to climate change, especially individuals who:

    • live in disaster-prone areas

    • survive a disaster

    • are economically dependent on a stable climate

    • have pre-existing mental illness

    • are children

  • Public health awareness, planning, and training as well as effective climate communication can reduce the mental health impacts of climate change.


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by cooperative agreement 5UE1EH000738 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Special thanks to the following people for their contributions to the creation of this training module:

Nancy Carlson

Minnesota Department of Health Office of Emergency Preparedness

Susan Littrell, LiCSW, LADC

Hennepin County Community Outreach for Psychiatric Emergencies (COPE)

Ken Winters, Ph.D.

University of Minnesota Department of Psychiatry

Chris Bray, Ph.D., LP

Ambit Network

Mary Jo Verschay

Minnesota Department of Human Services


Thank you

Thank You

Contact Minnesota Climate and Health Program:

651-201-4898

651-201-5759 TTY

[email protected]

http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/index.html

Questions?

JULY 29, 2013


References

References

Benson E. Society’s Grand Challenges: Global Climate Change. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. Available online at: http://www.apa.org/science/resources/grand-challenges.aspx

Berry HL, Kelly BJ, Hanigan IC, Coates JH, McMichael AJ, Welsh JA, Kjellstrom T. 2008. Garnaut climate change review: rural mental health impacts of climate change. National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, ANU College of Medicine and Health Sciences.

Coyle KJ, Van Susteren L. 2012. The Psychological Effects of Global Warming on the United State: And Why the U.S. Mental Health System is Not Adequately Prepared. National Wildlife Federation.

Doherty TJ, Clayton S. 2011. The psychological impacts of global climate change. American Psychologist, Vol. 6:4, page 265.

EbiKL, Balbus J, Kinney PL, Lipp E, Mills D, O’Neill MS, and Wilson M. 2008. Effects of global change on human health. In: Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems [Gamble JL (ed.), Ebi KL, Sussman FG, and Wilbanks TJ (authors)]. SynthesisandAssessment Product 4.6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp. 39-87.

Ebi KL, Semenza JC. 2008. Community-based adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 2008; 35 (5): 501.

FritzeJ, Blashki GA, Burke S, Wiseman J. 2008. Hope, despair and transformation: Climate change and the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 2: 13.

Frumkinet. al, 2008. Framing Public Health Matters, Climate Change: the Public Health Response, Howard Frumkin, MD, DRPH, Jeremy Hess, MD, MPH, George Luber, PhD, Josephine Malilay, PhD, MPH, and Michael McGeehin, PhD, MSPH, American Journal of Public Health, March 2008, Vol. 98, No. 3, pp 435-445.

Harvey JH. 2001. The Psychology of Loss as a Lens to a Positive Psychology. American Behavioral Scientist, January 2001, 44: 838.

Hess JJ, Malilay JN, Parkinson AJ. 2008. Climate change: the importance of place. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 35:5, p. 468.

Interagency Working Group on Climate Change and Health. 2010. A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change: A Report Outlining the Research Needs on the Human Health Effects of Climate Change. Published by Environmental Health Perspectives and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Keim ME. 2008. Building human resilience: the role of public health preparedness and response as adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 35:5, p. 508.


References1

References

Leiserowitz A. 2005. Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: the role of affect, imagery, and values. Climate Change, 2005; 77:45-72.

Leiserowitz A, Maibach E, Roser-Renouf, C, Feinberg G, Howe, P. 2013. Global Warming’s Six Americas, September 2012. Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.

Maibach E, Nisbet M, Weather M. 2011. Conveying the Human Implications of Climate Change: A Climate Change Communication Primer for Public Health Professionals. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication.

McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S. 2006. Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet, March 2006; 367: 859-69.

Midwestern Regional Climate Center. 2010. Climate Change & Variability in the Midwest. Temperature and Precipitation Trends 1895 – 2010. Available online: http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/mwclimatechange.htm

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2005. What’s the Difference Between Weather and Climate? Available online: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa/climate/climate_weather.html

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012a. National Climactic Data Center, Billion Dollar Weather/Climate Disasters. Available online: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012b. Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services. Available online: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service (June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22,2011 from http://nws.noaa.gov/glossary/index.php?letter=h

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service (Modified June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22, 2011 from http://www.epa.gov/heatisld/resources/glossary.htm#u


References2

References

Randall R. 2009. Loss and climate change; the cost of parallel narratives. Ecopsychology 1:3, p. 118.

Seeley M. 2012. Climate Trends and Climate Change in Minnesota: A Review. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/seeley/

Shea KM. 2007. Global climate change and children’s health. Pediatrics, 2007; 120: e1359.

State Climatology Office. Department of Natural Resources – Division of Ecological and Water Resources and the University of Minnesota – Department of Soil, Water, and Climate. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/

Dew Point (http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/mspdewpoint.htm)

Dew Point July 19, 2011 Technical Analysis (http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf)

Drought Information Resources (http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/climate/drought/index.html)

History Mega-Rain Events in Minnesota (http://www.climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/mega_rain_events.htm)

Warshaw C, Moroney, G. 2002. Mental Health and Domestic Violence. The Domestic Violence and Mental Health Policy Initiative. Available online at: http://www.nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org/

Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011a. Minnesota Temperature 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html

Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011b. Minnesota Precipitation 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html

World Health Organization (WHO) 2009. Climate change exposures, chronic diseases, and mental health in urban populations: a threat to health security, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2010. Climate change and health. Fact sheet N°266. Available online: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/

Zandlo, Jim 2008. Observing the climate. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/climateChange/climateChangeObservedNu.htm


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