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Chapter 12 Income Distribution, Poverty, and Discrimination. Key Concepts Summary Practice Quiz Internet Exercises. ©2000 South-Western College Publishing. In this chapter, you will learn to solve these economic puzzles:. How can a negative income tax solve the “welfare mess”?.

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Chapter 12 income distribution poverty and discrimination l.jpg
Chapter 12Income Distribution, Poverty, and Discrimination

  • Key Concepts

  • Summary

  • Practice Quiz

  • Internet Exercises

©2000 South-Western College Publishing


In this chapter you will learn to solve these economic puzzles l.jpg
In this chapter, you will learn to solve these economic puzzles:

How can a negative income tax solve the “welfare mess”?

What is the effect on labor markets of laws that protect women from jobs deemed “too strenuous” or “too dangerous”?

Could the rich become richer in the 1980’s and other income groups also become better off?


What is the general trend of income distribution l.jpg
What is the general trend of Income Distribution? puzzles:

Since 1970, the percentage of income received by families in the lowest 20% has fallen, while the percentage received by families in the 20% highest income groups have risen


Slide4 l.jpg

Division of the Total Annual Money Income Among Families puzzles:

% of Families

1980

1990

1997

4.6%

5.1%

Lowest 5th

4.2%

Second-lowest 5th

11.5

10.8

9.9

17.5

15.7

16.6

Middle 5th

24.3

23.8

23.0

Second-highest 5th

41.6

44.3

47.2

Highest 5th

Highest 5%

15.3

17.4

20.7


What is median income l.jpg
What is Median Income? puzzles:

50% of families earn less than the median income and 50% earn more


Slide6 l.jpg

Median Income of Families, 1994 puzzles:

Median Income

Characteristic

All families

$44,568

Headed by a male

$32,960

Headed by a female

$21,023

With head aged 25-34

$39,979

With head aged 65 and over

$30,660

Headed by a high school grad

$40,040

$67,230

Person with a bachelor’s degree


What are some arguments against income inequality l.jpg
What are some arguments against income inequality? puzzles:

  • Wealthy can influence politics

  • Wealthy have more opportunities

  • Wealthy can afford better health care


What is an argument for income inequality l.jpg
What is an argument for income inequality? puzzles:

Income inequality gives people an incentive to become more productive


What is the lorenz curve l.jpg
What is the puzzles:Lorenz Curve?

A graph of the actual cumulative distribution of income compared to a perfectly equal distribution of income


Slide10 l.jpg

Hypothetical Lorenz Curve puzzles:

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

% of income

40%

Actual Income

20%

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide11 l.jpg

Lorenz Curve 1929 & 1997 puzzles:

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

1997

% of income

40%

20%

1929

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide12 l.jpg

Lorenz Curve for Nations puzzles:

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

Russia

% of income

40%

Brazil

20%

U.S.

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


What is the poverty line l.jpg
What is the Poverty Line? puzzles:

The level of income below which a person or a family is considered to be poor


Does the poverty line consider cash transfer income l.jpg
Does the Poverty Line consider Cash Transfer Income? puzzles:

Yes; Social Security, unemployment compensation, and Aid to Families of Dependent Children are considered


What are in kind transfers l.jpg
What are puzzles:In-kind Transfers?

Government payments in the form of goods and services, rather than cash


Does the poverty line consider in kind transfers l.jpg
Does the Poverty Line consider In-kind transfers? puzzles:

Receipts from government programs such as food stamps, Medicaid, and housing are not included


Slide17 l.jpg

22 puzzles:%

13%

14%

14%

13%

13%

12%

1959

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1997


Slide18 l.jpg

% of U.S. Persons below Poverty Level puzzles:

Characteristic

%

Headed by married couple

5%

Headed by a male, no wife

13%

Headed by a female, no husband

32%

24%

No high school diploma

10%

High school diploma, no college

2%

Bachelor’s degree or more


What are examples of cash transfer programs l.jpg
What are examples of Cash Transfer Programs? puzzles:

  • Social Security

  • Unemployment Compensation

  • Aid to Families with Dependent Children


What are examples of in kind transfer programs l.jpg
What are examples of In-kind Transfer Programs? puzzles:

  • Food stamps

  • Medicaid

  • Housing Assistance


What are major criticisms of welfare l.jpg
What are major criticisms of Welfare? puzzles:

  • Work disincentives

  • Inefficiencies

  • Inequities


What are examples of reform proposals l.jpg
What are examples of Reform Proposals? puzzles:

  • Negative income tax

  • Workfare


What is a negative income tax l.jpg
What is a Negative Income Tax? puzzles:

A plan under which families below a certain break-even level of income would receive cash payments that decrease as their income increases


Slide24 l.jpg

Negative Income Tax puzzles:

$10

Positive Tax

$5

0

Tax Liability

$-5

Negative Tax

$-20

Family Income

$10

$20

$30

$40

$50


What is workfare l.jpg
What is Workfare? puzzles:

Recipients of government programs have to work to receive the benefits


Can discrimination effect people s wage rate l.jpg
Can Discrimination effect People’s wage rate? puzzles:

Certain groups can receive more or less income if there is discrimination in the labor market


How does comparable worth effect wages l.jpg
How does Comparable Worth effect wages? puzzles:

Employees who work for the same employer must be paid the same wages when their jobs, even if different, require similar levels of education, etc.


Key concepts l.jpg
Key Concepts puzzles:


Key concepts29 l.jpg
Key Concepts puzzles:

  • What is Median Income?

  • What are some arguments against income inequality?

  • What is an argument for income inequality?

  • What is the Lorenz Curve?

  • What is the Poverty Line?

  • What are In-kind Transfers?

  • Does the Poverty Line consider In-kind transfers?


Key concepts cont l.jpg
Key Concepts cont. puzzles:

  • What are examples of Cash Transfer Programs?

  • What are examples of In-kind Transfer Programs?

  • What is a Negative Income Tax?

  • What is Workfare?

  • Can Discrimination effect People’s wage rate?

  • How does Comparable Worth effect wages?


Summary l.jpg
Summary puzzles:


Slide32 l.jpg

The Lorenz curve is a measure of inequality of income. Since 1947, the share of money income for each fifth of families ranked according to their income has been stable. Also, the degree of income inequality among families in the United States has changed little since 1929. During the 1980’s, the richest families did become richer; however, the median income of all groups increased.


Slide33 l.jpg

Hypothetical Lorenz Curve Since 1947, the share of money income for each fifth of families ranked according to their income has been stable. Also, the degree of income inequality among families in the United States has changed little since 1929. During the 1980’s, the richest families did become richer; however, the median income of all groups increased.

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

% of income

40%

Actual Income

20%

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide34 l.jpg

The poverty line is a level of cash income below which a family is classified as poor. The poverty income threshold is three times the cost of a minimal diet for a family. Today, about 12 percent of the U.S. population is officially classified as poor.


Slide35 l.jpg

In-kind transfers are payments to the poor in the form of goods and services, rather than cash. Calculation of the poverty line counts cash income. On the other hand, in-kind transfers, such as food stamps, Medicaid, and housing, do not count as income for families classified as officially poor.


Slide36 l.jpg

Government cash transfers counted in the poverty line include payments from Social Security, unemployment compensation, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.


Slide37 l.jpg

Welfare criticisms include three major arguments: (1) Welfare reduces the incentive to work for the poor and taxpayers. (2) Welfare is inefficient because much of the money covers administrative costs, rather than providing benefits for the poor. (3) Because many antipoverty programs are controlled by the state, welfare benefits vary widely.


Slide38 l.jpg

The negative income tax is a plan to set an income guarantee for all families. As a low-income family earns income, government payments (negative income tax) are phased out. After reaching a break-even income, families become taxpayers instead of being on the welfare rolls.


Slide39 l.jpg

Negative Income Tax guarantee for all families. As a low-income family earns income, government payments (negative income tax) are phased out. After reaching a break-even income, families become taxpayers instead of being on the welfare rolls.

$10

Positive Tax

$5

0

Tax Liability

$-5

Negative Tax

$-20

Family Income

$10

$20

$30

$40

$50


Slide40 l.jpg

Comparable worth is the theory that workers in jobs determined to be of equal value by means of point totals should be paid equally. Instead of allowing labor markets to set wages, independent consultants award points to different jobs on the basis of such criteria as knowledge, experience, and working conditions


Chapter 12 quiz l.jpg
Chapter 12 Quiz determined to be of equal value by means of point totals should be paid equally. Instead of allowing labor markets to set wages, independent consultants award points to different jobs on the basis of such criteria as knowledge, experience, and working conditions

©2000 South-Western College Publishing


Slide42 l.jpg

1. In 1997, the wealthiest 5 percent of all U.S. families earned what percentage of total annual money income among families?

a. More than 20 percent.

b. Less than 10 percent.

c. More than 25 percent.

d. More than 50 percent.

A.


Slide43 l.jpg

Division of the Total Annual Money Income Among Families earned what percentage of total annual money income among families?

% of Families

1980

1990

1997

4.6%

5.1%

Lowest 5th

4.2%

Second-lowest 5th

11.5

10.8

9.9

17.5

15.7

16.6

Middle 5th

24.3

23.8

23.0

Second-highest 5th

41.6

44.3

47.2

Highest 5th

Highest 5%

15.3

17.4

20.7


Slide44 l.jpg

2. A figure that measures the relationship between the cumulative percentage of money income on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of families on the horizontal axis is called the

a. family-income curve.

b. Washington curve.

c. Lorenz curve.

d. Gini curve.

C.


Slide45 l.jpg

The Lorenz Curve cumulative percentage of money income on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of families on the horizontal axis is called the

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

Inequality

% of income

40%

20%

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide46 l.jpg

Exhibit 11 cumulative percentage of money income on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of families on the horizontal axis is called the Lorenz Curve

100%

Y

80%

Perfect Equality

X

60%

% of income

40%

Z

20%

W

Cumulative % of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide47 l.jpg

3. As shown in Exhibit 11, the perfect equality line is drawn between points

a. W and Y along the curve.

b. X and Z.

c. W and Y along the straight line.

d. W and X.

C.


Slide48 l.jpg

4. As shown in Exhibit 11, 20 percent of families earned a cumulative share of about _______ percent of income.

a. 5.

b. 10.

c. 30.

d. 50.

A.


Slide49 l.jpg

5. As shown in Exhibit 11, 40 percent of families earned a cumulative share of about _______ percent of income.

a. 5.

b. 15.

c. 30.

d. 40.

B.


Slide50 l.jpg

6. Since 1929, the overall income distribution in the United States has become

a. much more unequal.

b. much less unequal.

c. slightly more unequal.

d. slightly more equal.

D.


Slide51 l.jpg

Lorenz Curve 1929 & 1997 States has become

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

1997

% of income

40%

20%

1929

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide52 l.jpg

7. Comparing the family income distributions of the United States, Russia, and Brazil, the conclusion is that income is distributed

a. most equally in Brazil.

b. most equally in the United States.

c. about the same in all three countries.

d. most equally in Russia.

D.


Slide53 l.jpg

Lorenz Curve for Nations States, Russia, and Brazil, the conclusion is that income is distributed

100%

Perfect Equality

80%

60%

Russia

% of income

40%

Brazil

20%

U.S.

% of families

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%


Slide54 l.jpg

8. In order to establish the poverty line that divides poor and nonpoor families, the government

a. multiplies the cost of a minimal diet by 3.

b. multiplies the cost of a minimal diet by 5.

c. adds 50 percent to cost of a minimal diet.

d. adds 100 percent to cost of a minimal diet.

A. Absolute poverty can be defined in dollars to purchase some minimum amount of goods and services essential to meeting a person or family’s basic needs.


Slide55 l.jpg

9. The poverty line and nonpoor families, the government

a. is defined as one-half average family income.

b. includes in-kind transfers.

c. includes Medicaid benefits.

d. has been attacked for overstating poverty.

D. The poverty line does not include noncash transfers, such as food stamps and Medicaid.


Slide56 l.jpg

10. Which of the following is an in-kind transfer? and nonpoor families, the government

a. Social Security payments.

b. Unemployment compensation.

c. Food stamps.

d. Welfare payments.

C. Social Security payments, unemployment compensation and welfare payments are cash transfer payments included in the poverty line.


Slide57 l.jpg

11. Which of the following is a cash assistance (not an in-kind transfer) program?

a. Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

b. Medicare.

c. Medicaid.

d. Food stamps.

A. Medicare and Medicaid provide medical care services and food stamps are used for food. AFDC provides cash that can be used to purchase goods and services chosen by recipient.


Slide58 l.jpg

12. The negative income tax (NIT) is a plan under which families

a. above a level of income pay no tax.

b. pay the same tax rate except for the poor.

c. below a level of income pay no tax.

d. below a level of income receive a cash payment.

D.


Slide59 l.jpg

Negative Income Tax families

$10

Positive Tax

$5

0

Tax Liability

$-5

Negative Tax

$-20

Family Income

$10

$20

$30

$40

$50


Slide60 l.jpg

13. Which of the following might decrease the supply curve of labor?

a. Discrimination against blacks.

b. Discrimination against women.

c. Difficult licensing requirements.

d. All of the above.

D. Discrimination against blacks and women and different licensing requirements reduce the number of workers who are willing to work at various possible wage rates.


Internet exercises l.jpg
Internet Exercises of labor?

Click on the picture of the book, choose updates by chapter for the latest internet exercises


Slide62 l.jpg
END of labor?


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