EET 252 Unit 8 Computer Basics. Read Floyd, Sections 13-1 to 13-6 (skimming Section 13-3 and pages 739-745). Do Lab #8. Homework #8 and Lab #8 due next week. Quiz next week. Figure 13.1 Basic computer block diagram. Computer Block Diagram.
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The microprocessor or central processing unit (CPU) fetches instructions from memory and executes them.
Memory stores instructions and data until needed by the CPU.
The ports are the I/O connections to the peripherals.
The buses are groups of conductorswith a common purpose.
Peripherals are devices for inputting or outputting information.
Four blocks are common to all microprocessors. These are:
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
A bus consists of a set of wires or circuit-board traces over which information moves from one place to another.
The address bus is used by the microprocessor to specify a location in memory or external device.
The data bus transfers data and instruction codes to and from memory and I/O ports.
The control bus coordinates operations and communicates with external devices.
Most programming today is done in high-level languages, which can run on various machines. High-level programs are easier to write and maintain than assembly programs or machine code.
Assembly language is more convenient than machine language. Assembly language is used today for many applications because it executes fast and efficiently. But it must be written for a specific processor.
Early computers were programmed in machine language. Machine language is tedious to write and prone to errors.
High-level languages are machine-independent. The source code is translated to machine code by a compiler for the specific processor being used.
High-level language program
Machine language program
Assembly language must be written for the specific processor being used, so the programmer must understand details of how this processor operates. An assembler translates the source code to machine code.
Assembly language program
Machine language program
Direct memory access (DMA) is a data transfer technique in which data is transferred between a peripheral device and memory without involving the CPU. A DMA controller handles the transfer. The transfer is faster using this method.