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“Promoting the Use of End-to-End Congestion Control in the Internet”. Sally Floyd, Kevin Fall in Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1999 A Summary by Ashish Samant CS577 – Spring 2005. Outline. Need for end-to-end congestion control Unfairness, Congestion Collapse

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Promoting the use of end to end congestion control in the internet

“Promoting the Use of End-to-End Congestion Control in the Internet”

Sally Floyd, Kevin Fall in Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1999

A Summary by Ashish Samant

CS577 – Spring 2005

CS577 Spring 2005


Outline
Outline Internet”

  • Need for end-to-end congestion control

  • Unfairness, Congestion Collapse

  • Per flow based scheduling Vs Congestion Control mechanisms at the router

  • Identifying candidate flows for regulation

  • Other incentives for flows

CS577 Spring 2005


Introduction
Introduction Internet”

  • End hosts/applications may not use end-to-end congestion control schemes.

  • Problem - This may lead to congestion collapse and unfairness, in times of congestion.

  • Solution – Isolate ill-behaving flows, use per-flow based queuing at routers.

  • This may not be sufficient !!

CS577 Spring 2005


Introduction continued
Introduction …. continued Internet”

  • Authors suggest -

    Routers must support congestion control and regulate high-bandwidth flows.

  • Routers must regulate ‘best effort flows’ that

    are TCP-Unfriendly,

    unresponsive to congestion,

    use disproportionate bandwidth.

CS577 Spring 2005


Introduction continued1
Introduction …. continued Internet”

  • Unresponsive flows cause two problems

    - Unfairness; well-behaved flows may suffer bandwidth starvation because unresponsive flows do not react to congestion.

    - Congestion collapse; the scarce bandwidth of the network is consumed by packets from unresponsive flows, that will be discarded sooner or later.

CS577 Spring 2005


Experimental setup
Experimental Setup Internet”

CS577 Spring 2005


Unfairness 3 tcp 1 udp flow fcfs
Unfairness – 3 TCP, 1 UDP flow, FCFS Internet”

CS577 Spring 2005


Fairness 3 tcp 1 udp flow wrr
Fairness – 3 TCP, 1 UDP flow, WRR Internet”

CS577 Spring 2005



Congestion control 3 tcp 1 udp flow wrr
Congestion Control – 3 TCP, 1 UDP flow, WRR Internet”

CS577 Spring 2005


Congestion control 3 udp 1 tcp flow wrr
Congestion Control – 3 UDP, 1 TCP flow, WRR Internet”

CS577 Spring 2005


Identifying non tcp friendly flows
Identifying non TCP-Friendly Flows Internet”

  • TCP Friendly Flow – arrival rate does not exceed that of any other TCP conformant flow.

  • Maximum sending rate for a TCP Friendly flow :

    T - sending rate ; p - packet drop rate ; B – max packet size ; R – minimum RTT

  • Actual rates will be less than T.

CS577 Spring 2005


Identifying non tcp friendly flows1
Identifying non TCP-Friendly Flows Internet”

  • Limitations :

    Inconsistencies in finding packet size, round trip time.

    Measurements should be taken over a long interval of time.

    Bursty packet drops.

  • Router Response :

    Routers should ‘freely restrict’ the bandwidth of non

    TCP – Friendly flows.

CS577 Spring 2005


Identifying unresponsive flows
Identifying Unresponsive Flows Internet”

  • TCP Friendly test cannot be used at routers that are unable to determine packet sizes and RTTs.

  • If packet drop rates increase by x , the arrival rate should drop by √x .

  • When packet drop is constant, no flow will be identified as unresponsive.

CS577 Spring 2005


Identifying unresponsive flows1
Identifying Unresponsive Flows Internet”

  • Limitations :

    Packet drop may be because of various reasons, hard for flows with variable demand.

    Flows might be tempted to start with a higher initial bandwidth demand.

  • Response :

    Actively regulate the bandwidth of unresponsive flows in times of congestion.

CS577 Spring 2005


Identifying flows using disproportionate flows
Identifying flows using disproportionate flows Internet”

  • Flows that require larger bandwidth than other flows that reduce their demand.

  • These might be TCP friendly but still be ‘disproportionate’.

    Arrival rate <= log(3n) / n ; n = no of flows

    Arrival rate <= c / √p ; p = pkt drop rate

    c = some constant

CS577 Spring 2005


Comments and conclusion
Comments and Conclusion Internet”

  • Alternate approaches

    - use schemes that are a mix of FCFS and per-flow based approach ( FCFS scheduling with differential dropping ).

    - pricing incentives.

  • granularity of flows

    - apply fairness tests to single/aggregate of flows.

  • min-max fairness measure

    - need to look at the entire path, all the congested links.

CS577 Spring 2005


Comments and conclusion continued
Comments and Conclusion … continued Internet”

  • Breaking a TCP connection, increased local throughput but also increases global packet drop rate.

CS577 Spring 2005


Derivation of tcp friendly rate
Derivation of TCP Friendly Rate Internet”

  • Once congestionWindow >= W ; a packet is dropped and the congestion window is halved.

  • As long as congestionWindow < W ; window is increased by 1, per RTT

    W/2 + (W/2+1) + (W/2+2) + … W = 3/8*W2

    => per packet drop ; max 3/8*W2 packets are sent

    => max packet drops <= 1/(3/8*W2)

CS577 Spring 2005


Derivation of tcp friendly rate continued
Derivation of TCP Friendly Rate … Continued Internet”

  • Max bytes transferred per cycle of steady state:

    Total packets sent * Avg. packet Size

    Avg Round Trip Time

    ( Total packets sent = 0.75*W )

    = > (0.75 * W * B) / R

    = >

CS577 Spring 2005


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